HISTORY VOCAB - WW1

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From 164 = Germany stuff

dominated

controlled or ruled by superior authority or power

colonial

a resident of a colony

Militarization (the arms race)

building up the nation's army and navy and improving its equipment

Alliances

A union or association formed for mutual benefit; agreements made between countries to help each other if war broke out (the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente)

Imperialism

The desire to conquer colonies; extending your countries' rule over another countries

Nationalism

patriotism and the belief that your country is better than others. This made nations assertive and aggressive.

patriotism

love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it

assertive

confidently aggressive

aggressive

having or showing determination and energetic pursuit of your ends

resentment

a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will

Gavrilo Princip

The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.

Sarajevo, Bosnia

World War I broke out here when Austro-Hungarian archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated

Schlieffen Plan

Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.

modifications

slight changes

General Von Schlieffen

He created the Schlieffen plan--a two front war with France and Russia. He was a German general.

Netherlands

a constitutional monarchy in western Europe on the North Sea

Belgium

a monarchy in northwestern Europe

General Von Moltke

The general that put the Schlieffen Plan into action

alterations

modifications made to a pattern or garment for a better fit

corps

an army unit usually consisting of two or more divisions

assumptions

a belief that something is true without proof

miscalculations

an act of miscalculating; an error or misjudgment

mobilize

cause to move around

counter-productive

tending to hinder the achievement of a goal

Battle of Tannenburg

where Russia was defeated on August 30th by the Germans.

obligation

a legal agreement specifying a payment or action and the penalty for failure to comply

1839 Treaty of London

Treaty that made Britain protect Belgium if they were attacked upon

cavalry

troops trained to fight on horseback

foot soldiers

Infantry

artillery

an army unit that uses big guns

swiftly

very quickly

Battle of Liège

the first battle of the war, from August 5-16, 1914 between Germany & Belgium. Germany won but suffered many losses

Big Bretha

A big German Artillery gun

British Expeditionary Forces (BEFs)

-name of British ground forces
-had plans for swift intervention if Germans were to attack on Belgium and France
-British navy was better prepared

Plan 17

A French attack aimed to regain land loss during the Franco-Prussian war in 1880. There were heavy losses on the French side and was then abandoned.

Battle of Mons

British held up the Germans troops for 48 hours before falling into a retreat all the way to the outskirts of Paris for 2 weeks until the start of the Battle at the Marne

ammunition

projectiles to be fired from a gun

First Battle of the Marne

On September 6, The French attacked a gap in the German line at the Battle of the Marne. For three days, France threw everything into the attack. Finally, the Germans fell back. Paris and France had been miraculously saved.

River Aisne

A river where the French and British troops pushed the Germany army to

strategic

highly important to or an integral part of a strategy or plan of action especially in war

war of movement

...

trench warfare

war from inside trenches enemies would try killing eachother with machine guns and tanks, and poison gas

war of attrition

A war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses

General Von Falkenhayn

Moltke's successor, he sought success by an attack on the French stronghold of Verdun.

outflank

go around the flank of (an opposing army)

supplied

gave what is need or wanted

equipment

an instrumentality needed for an undertaking or to perform a service

reinforcements

extra people such as soldiers or police sent to provide help

casualties

people who are killed, wounded, captured, or missing in a war

decisive

characterized by decision and firmness

First Battle of Ypres

(October and November of 1914)
Allied troops ended all hopes of a German advance, leading to a stalemate and the beginning of trench warfare.

Race to the Sea

The name given to a period of World War I when, on the Western Front, the two sides were still engaged in mobile warfare. With the German advance stalled at the First Battle of the Marne, the opponents continually attempted to outflank each other through north-eastern France. This process brought the forces back to positions prepared under British Admiralty guidance, on the North Sea coast in Western Belgium. The nature of operations then changed to trench warfare, which is very large scale siege warfare. This produced a continuous front line of trench fortifications more than two hundred miles long, which by the following Spring extended from the coast to the Swiss border.

hygienic

tending to promote or preserve health

decimated

destroyed in large percentage

artillery bombardment

artillery bombardment

sheltered

protected from danger or bad weather

annihilated

destroyed completely, wipe out

belts of barbed wire

barbed wire

artillery

artillery

Deadlock

A situation, typically one involving opposing parties, in which no progress can be made

Stalemate

Any position or situation in which no action or progress can be taken or made

shrapnel

Fragments of a bomb, shell, or other object thrown out by an explosion

Bayonet

The blade fixed on to the end of a rifle (specialty of British)

Britain

a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the British Isles

Belgium

a monarchy in northwestern Europe

concealed

concealed or hidden on any grounds for any motive

camouflage

the act of concealing the identity of something by modifying its appearance

eradicate

kill in large numbers

corpses

dead bodies

accurate

conforming exactly or almost exactly to fact or to a standard or performing with total accuracy

psychological

mental or emotional as opposed to physical in nature

moderate

not extreme

morale

the spirit of a group that makes the members want the group to succeed

maneuverable

...

unreliable

not worthy of reliance or trust

preceded

to come before

Creeping Barrage

the standard means of deploying artillery to support an infantry attack. The infantry would follow the advancing artillery as close as possible. this was found to be way more effective than weeks of preliminary bombardment

munitions

military supplies

inexhaustible

incapable of being entirely consumed or used up

threatened

(of flora or fauna) likely in the near future to become endangered

inaccessible

capable of being reached only with great difficulty or not at all

Bulgaria

a republic in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe

Greece

a republic in southeastern Europe on the southern part of the Balkan peninsula

Winston Churchill

First Lord of the Admiralty, Politician in charge of the Navy

Dardanelles

the strait between the Aegean and the Sea of Marmara that separates European Turkey from Asian Turkey

erroneous

incorrect, containing mistakes

obsolete

no longer in use

Constantinople

the largest city and former capital of Turkey

navel bombardment

Artillery bombardment using the navy's guns

Bosporus

a strait connecting the Mediterranean and the Black Sea

auspicious

attended by favorable circumstances

hesitation

the act of pausing uncertainly

indecision

the trait of irresolution

confusion

a mistake that results from taking one thing to be another

moderate slopes

listen

steep ridges

listen

Amphibious landings

the way of getting soldiers from the sea to the land, landing forces from the sea

dysentery

an infection of the intestines marked by severe diarrhea

blizzard

A heavy snowstorm with strong winds

sanitation

the state of being clean and conducive to health

evacuation

the act of evacuating

humiliation

depriving one of self-esteem

Battle of the Somme

battle in World War I (1916)

divert

send on a course or in a direction different from the planned or intended one

breakthrough

a penetration of a barrier such as an enemy's defense

adjacent

near or close to but not necessarily touching

preoccupied

having or showing excessive or compulsive concern with something

over-whelming

so strong as to be irresistible, very intense

concrete

a strong hard building material composed of sand and gravel and cement and water

defence

protection from harm

laden

burdened psychologically or mentally

murderous

capable of or conducive to bloodshed

suffered

To feel pain or distress; sustain loss, injury, harm, or punishment

Pal Battalions

listen

civilian

a nonmilitary citizen

volunteers

people who offer to do things by choice and often without pay

tactical

having to do with tactics especially naval or military tactics; marked tactics or deft maneuvering

inevitable

an unavoidable event

Hindenburg Line

line of trench systems established in 1917 that were the last and strongest of the German army's defence on the Western Front

strategic

highly important to or an integral part of a strategy or plan of action especially in war

contributed

give, give to be published, had a part in

Battle of Passchendaele

was one of the worst slaughters of World War I. During the summer and fall of 1917, Allied troops fought through endless rains across fields of deep mud, to capture the small town of Passchendaele in Belgium.

3rd battle of Ypres

500,000 people wounded or dead
one of the first battles the americans participated in

theory of Attrition

listen

imminent

about to happen

fortified

secured with bastions or fortifications

churned

stirred or shook greatly

quagmire

a soft wet area of low-lying land that sinks underfoot

immobilized

unable to move

weaponry

weapons considered collectively

aerial reconnaissance

looking over battlefields from the sky

inexperienced

lacking practical experience or training

capacity

the maximum production possible

overconfident

marked by excessive confidence

underestimating

placing at too low a value

Inflexible

literal meanings

The Battle of Heligoland Bight

(28 August 1914)

The Battle at Dogger Bank

(24th JAN 1915)

The Battle of Jutland

(31 MAY - 1 JUN 1916)

armaments

The weapons and supplies of war with which a military unit is equipped

dominance

superior development of one side of the body

essential

absolutely necessary

statistics

a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters

RMS Lusitania

the Germans torpedoed and sunk this passenger ship off the coast of Ireland drawing the United States into WWI

Dover Barrage

listen

British Blockade

an effort to restrict the maritime supply of raw materials and foodstuffs

demoralized

made less hopeful or enthusiastic

explosives

things that can blow up or explode

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