Executive Control Process
Processes such as selective attention, rehearsal, elaboration, and organization that influence encoding, storage, and retrieval of information in memory
Knowledge about our own thinking processes
General plans for approaching learning tasks
Specific techniques for learning, such as using mnemonics or outlining a passage
A drawing that charts the relationships among ideas
Tools for concept mapping developing by the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition that are connected to many knowledge maps and other resources on the Internet
A five-step reading strategy: Review headings; Examine boldface words; Ask "what do I expect to learn?"; Do it- Read; Summarize in your own words
A strategy that can be used in reading literature: Characters, Aim or story, Problem, Solution
A strategy to guide reading and inquiry: Before-what do I already know? What do I want to know? After-What have I learned?
Students learn problem-solving strategies, but do not apply them when they could or should
Any situation in which you are trying to reach some goal and must find a means to do so
Creating new solutions for problems
Schema-Driven Problem Solving
Recognizing a problem as a "disguised" version of an old problem for which one already has a solution
Step-by-step procedure for solving a problem; prescription for soltuions
General strategy used in attempting to solve problems
Heuristic in which a goal is divided into subgoals
Heuristic in which one starts with the goal and moves backward to solve the problem
Heuristic in which one limits the search for solutions to situations that are similar to the one at hand
Putting your problem-solving plan and its logic into words
Inability to use objects or tools in a new way
Rigidity; tendency to respond in the most familiar way
Judging the likelihood of an event based on how well the events match your prototypes - what you think is representative of the category
Judging the likeliood of an event based on what is available in your memory, assuming those easily remembered events are common
The tendency to hold on the beliefs, even in the face of contradictory evidence
Seeking information that confirms our choices and beliefs, while dis-confirming evidence
Sudden realization of a solution
Imaginative, original thinking or problem solving
Conceiving of a problem in a new or different way
Coming up with many possible solutions
Narrowing possibilities to a single answer
Generating ideas without stopping to evaluate them
Stand-Alone Thinking Skills Programs
Programs that teach thinking skills directly without need for extensive subject matter knowledge
Evaluating conclusions by logically and systematically examining the problem, the evidence, and the solution
Influence of previously learned material on new material; the productive (not reproductive) uses of cognitive tools and motivations
Spontaneous and automatic transfer of highly practiced skills
Application of abstract knowledge learned in one situation to a different situation
Practicing a skill past the point of mastery
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