A&P 1 Final COMPLETE

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The type of muscle fiber that is most resistant to fatigue is the ______ fiber.

slow

Contractions that utilize anaerobic ATP production

require maximal contraction of muscles for short periods of time

During activities requiring aerobic endurance

most of the muscle's energy is produced in mitochondria

Fast muscle fibers can develop a larger number of mitochondria in response to

repeated, exhaustive stimulation

Which of the following statements are true regarding human muscles?

both C and D

Each of the following changes in the skeletal muscles is a consequence of aging except that

muscle fibers increase their reserves of glycogen

Heat energy produced from muscle contraction is released through the ____ system.

integumentary

Which of the following statements is false?

Cardiac muscle control is neural

Which of the following is not characteristic of smooth muscle?

Smooth muscle connective tissue forms tendons and aponeuroses

Which of the following is not a function of smooth muscle tissue?

forcing blood from the heart into the major arteries

The ability of smooth muscle to function over a wide range of lengths is called

plasticity

Muscle tissue, one of the four primary types of tissue, consists chiefly of muscle cells that are highly specialized for

contraction

The types of muscle tissue include all of the following except

striated muscle

At each end of the muscle, the collagen fibers of the epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium come together to form either a bundle known as a _____, or a broad sheet called an aponeurosis.

tendon

In order for a muscle to contract properly, it requires

all of the above

Skeletal muscle contracts only under stimulation from

the central nervous system

Differences between skeletal muscle cells and typical cells include which of the following?

both A and B

Each skeletal muscle fiber contains ____ myofibrils.

hundreds to thousands

When a skeletal muscle fiber contracts,

all of the above

Knowning that the myofibrils attached at the Z line of the sarcolemma and at either end of the muscle fiber, when myofibrils get shorter, the muscle fiber

shortens

The pull called tension is a(n) ____ force.

active

The cytoplasm of the synaptic terminal contains mitochondria and vesicles filled with molecules of the neurotransmitter

acetylcholine

Knowing the five steps that occur causing a neuron to stimulate a muscle fiber, if there is a problem with the release of calcium ions in the third step,

the action potential does not arrive

ATP metabolism normally provides _____ percent of the ATP demands of resting cell.

95

In an isotonic contraction,

tension rises and the skeletal muscle length changes

The contraction of a muscle exerts a pull on a bone because

muscles are attached to bones by tendons

Large diameter, densely packed myofibrils, large glycogen reserves, and few mitochondria are characteristics of

fast fibers

When contraction occurs

A, B, and C

Which of the following hormones directly stimulates growth of muscle tissue and increased muscle mass?

testosterone

Because skeletal muscle contractions demand large quantities of ATP, skeletal muscles have

a rich vascular supply.

During muscle contraction, all of the following occur, except

hemoglobin concentration in muscle fibers increases.

Physical evidence that supports the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction includes

decreased distance between Z lines during contraction.

When myosin cross-bridges bind to the active sites on actin,

they pivot toward the M line

Which of the following is greater?

the concentration of calcium ion in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of a resting muscle

The following is a list of the events that occur during a muscle contraction......

3, 5, 1, 2, 4, 6

After death, muscle fibers run out of ATP and calcium begins to leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm. This results in a condition known as

rigor mortis

How would blocking the activity of acetylcholinesterase affect skeletal muscle?

It would cause spastic paralysis

When acetylcholine binds to receptors at the motor end plate, the muscle membrane becomes

more permeable to sodium ions

Which of the following is not a function of skeletal muscle?

all of the above

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

Skeletal muscles are responsible for the pumping action of the heart.

The dense layer of collagen fibers that surround an entire skeletal muscle is the

epimysium

Nerves and blood vessels that service the muscle fibers are located in the connective tissues of the

perimysium

The delicate connective tissue that surrounds the skeletal muscle fibers and ties adjacent muscle fibers together is the

endomysium

The bundle of collagen fibers at the end of a skeletal muscle that attaches the muscle to bone is called a(n)

tendon

Muscle fibers differ from "typical cells" in that muscle fibers

have many nuclei

The advantage of having many nuclei in a skeletal muscle fiber is

the ability to produce large amounts of the enzymes and structural proteins needed for contraction

Skeletal muscle fibers are formed from embryonic cells called

myoblasts

The cell membrane of skeletal muscle is called the

sarcolemma

The cytoplasm of a skeletal muscle fiber is called the

sarcoplasm

The series of membranous channels that surround each myofibril is the

transverse tubule

The functional unit of a skeletal muscle fiber is the

sarcomere

Interactions between actin and myosin filaments of the sarcomere are responsible for

muscle contraction

In a sarcomere, thick filaments are linked laterally by

M line

Thin filaments at either end of the sarcomere are attached to the

Z line

The area of the sarcomere containing the thick filaments is the

Z line

The area of the sarcomere containing only thin filaments is the

I band

The area in the center of the A band that contains only thick filaments is the

H band

Each thin filament consists of

a pair of protein strands wound together

The sarcoplasmic reticulum stores

calcium ions

The skeletal muscle complex known as the triad consists of

a transverse tubule and terminal cisternae

Cross-bridges are portions of

myosin molecules

At rest, active sites on the actin are blocked by

tropomyosin molecules

At rest, the tropomyosin molecules is held in place by

troponin molecules

Each skeletal muscle fiber is controlled by a neuron at a single

neuromuscular junction

The space between the neuron and the muscle is the

synaptic cleft

Receptors for acetylcholine are located on the

motor end plate

Action potentials are conducted into a skeletal muscle fiber by

transverse tubules

Active sites on the actin become available for binding when

calcium binds to troponin

In response to action potentials arriving from the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases

calcium ions

Which of the following acts as an ATPase during the contraction cycle of muscle?

myosin cross-bridges

When calcium ion binds to troponin,

active sites on the myosin are exposed

The most important factor in decreasing the intracellular concentration of calcium ion after contraction is

diffusion of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

When the sarcomeres are slightly less than fully shortened, contraction cannot occur.

Calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the _____ of contraction.

latent period

The type of contraction represented by a single stimulus / contraction / relaxation sequence is a(n)

twitch

When a muscle is stimulated repeatedly for several seconds with a constant stimulus, the amount of tension gradually increases to a maximum. This phenomemnon is called

complete tetanus

A muscle producing peak tension with rapid cycles of contraction and relaxation is said to be in

incomplete tetanus

If a second stimulus arrives before the relaxation phase has ended, a second, more powerful contraction occurs. This is called

wave summation

A muscle that is stimulated so frequently that the relaxation phase is completely eliminated is said to exhibit

complete tetanus

The increase in muscle tension that is produced by increasing the number of active motor units is called

recruitment

The type of contraction in which the muscle fibers produce increased tension but do not shorten is called

isometric

A resting muscle generates most of its ATP by

aerobic respiration

Creatine phosphate

acts as an energy reserve in muscle tissue

During anaerobic glycolysis

A and B only

At peak levels of muscle exertion the mitochondria can supply

only about 1/3 of the enrgy required by the muscle

When energy reserves in a muscle are exhausted and lactic acid levels increase, _______ occurs.

fatigue

During the recovery period following exercise, all of the following are true, except

muscle fibers remain contracted

During the Cori cycle in the liver

glucose is produced from lactic acid

During the recovery period the body's need for oxygen is increased because

additional oxygen is required to metabolize the lactic acid produced during exercise

Fast fibers

produce powerful contractions

The smallest living unit within the human body is

the cell

Which of the following terms is not used to define the structure that separates the contents of a human cell from its surrounding medium?

cell wall

The plasma membrane is composed of

a bilayer of phospholipids.

Water molecules and small ions enter a cell through

channels formed by integral proteins.

Which of the following cytoskeleton components moves the chromosomes during cell division?

microtubules

Many proteins in the cytosol are ________ that accelerate metabolic reactions.

enzymes

Microscopic analysis of a tissue sample indicates that it contains abundant myosin and actin filaments. This tissue is probably formed from

muscle cells.

A mature red blood cell lacks a nucleus. Thus, it

cannot make new proteins and will be worn out within a few months.

Messenger RNA is vital to the cell because

mRNA can leave the nucleus and DNA cannot leave the nucleus.

The movement of oxygen from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example of

diffusion.

Osmotic pressure

**forces water to move toward the higher solute concentration.
**forces water to move across a semipermeable membrane.
**can be opposed by hydrostatic pressure.
all of the above
**to move toward the higher solute concentration and can be opposed by hydrostatic pressure.

all of the above.

A substance containing atoms of different elements that are bonded together is called a(n)

compound.

Breathing faster and deeper eliminates more carbon dioxide from the body than normal breathing. Under these circumstances

more carbon dioxide will diffuse out of the blood.

Two types of vesicular transport include

endocytosis and exocytosis.

A cell duplicates its chromosomes during the ________ phase.

S

During mitosis, two daughter cells form, each of which has

the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.

The study of tissues is called ________.

histology

Functions of epithelia include all of the following, except

supporting muscle cells.

Epithelium is connected to underlying connective tissue by

a basal lamina.

Cells that are specialized for secretion

exhibit polarity.

Close examination of an organ reveals a lining of several layers of cells. The layers do not contain any blood vessels and one surface of the cells is open to the internal cavity of the organ. This tissue is probably

epithelium.

Simple cuboidal epithelium is found

forming the kidney tubule

The heart and blood vessels are lined by

simple squamous epithelium.

Unicellular exocrine glands secrete

mucus.

The epithelium that lines the body cavities is known as ________.

mesothelium

Cells that store fat are called

adipocytes.

The dominant fiber type in dense connective tissue is

collagen.

The three types of connective tissue include

connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissues, and supporting connective tissues.

Which of the following connective tissue cells produces collagen?

fibroblasts

Defense cells in blood are called white blood cells or ________.

leukocytes

Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to

bone

Which type of connective tissue is found between the ribs and the sternum, or supporting the trachea?

hyaline cartilage

A herniated disc is an injury of the pads of cartilage between the vertebrae in which the cartilage bulges from normal position. What type of cartilage is affected?

fibrous cartilage

The reduction of friction between the parietal and visceral surfaces of an internal cavity is the function of

serous membranes.

Tissue that is specialized for contraction is ________ tissue.

muscle

Intercalated discs and pacemaker cells are characteristic of

cardiac muscle tissue.

Which of the following statements about tissue swelling that occurs during inflammation is true?

both triggered by histamine and caused by increased endothelial permeability

Each of the following is a function of the integumentary system, except

synthesis of vitamin C.
maintenance of body temperature.
excretion of salts and wastes.
provision of sensation.
protection of underlying tissue.

synthesis of vitamin C.

The layer of dividing cells at the base of the epidermis is the

stratum germinativum.

The layer of the skin that provides a barrier against bacteria as well as chemical and mechanical injuries is the

epidermis.

While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of epidermis did the thorn penetrate?

5

The primary pigments contained in the epidermis are

carotene and melanin.

________ is a pigment found in vegetables that can make the skin appear orange or yellow.

Carotene

Melanin is produced by melanocytes within the stratum ________.

germinativum

An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is

vitamin D.

Characteristics of the epidermis include

self-repairing.
flexible.
serving as UV radiation protection.
multilayered.
CORRECT ANSWER -all of the above

The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the ________ layer.

reticular

The protein that permits stretching and recoiling of the skin is

elastin

he layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the

cuticle

Hairs are produced within organs called ________.

hair follicles

The ________ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty.

spocrine sweat

The highest concentration of merocrine sweat glands is found

on the palms of the hands

A common cause of dandruff is

inflammation around sebaceous glands.

Nail production occurs at the nail

root

The following are stages in the regeneration of skin following an injury.

1. blood clot/scab formation
2. cellular migration
3. epidermis covers granulation tissue
4. epidermis covers scar tissue

The correct order for these events is

1, 2, 3, 4.

The type of burn that may require a skin graft is a

full-thickness burn

Treatment of full-thickness burns includes which of the following?

assist tissue repair
prevent infection
increase caloric intake
replace fluids
all of the above

all of the above

The tough "horny" superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the

stratum corneum

Which of the following happens if body temperature rises above normal?

Blood flow to the skin increases

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