Most of what is considered 'modern' first ...
Most of what is considered 'modern' first appeared in Europe
1500-1900 Europe had explosion (cultural, economic, ect.) that greatly ...
1500-1900 Europe had explosion (cultural, economic, ect.) that greatly affected the whole world's cultures and natures.
Europe's decline can be attributed to the adoption of their culture...
Europe's decline can be attributed to the adoption of their culture in other place's (no longer unique resources) and internal conflicts
1500 on tended to be progressive ...
1500 on tended to be progressive with social change and democracy
Greeks were first with political freedom w/ city states...
Greeks were first with political freedom w/ city states. Often independent and warring. Partially democratic.
Greeks studied ...
Greeks studied history.
"classical virtues"-Greek moral code...
"classical virtues"-Greek moral code that emphasized the golden mean
Greeks laid foundation for science...
Greeks laid foundation for science with their constant look at what lies beneath.
Alexander the Great-
Alexander the Great-Spread brief Greek empire
146 BC Romans
146 BC Romans conquer Greece
Pax Romana-Time of piece in Roman empire
Rome's defining characteristics-great...
Rome's defining characteristics-great structure, organization, armies
Laws more for...
Laws more for state than individuals
800 BC-700 AD world religions came
800 BC-700 AD world religions came, mid Greco-Roman
Christianity blamed for
Christianity blamed for fall of Rome
Constantine first Christian emperor
St. Augustine's City of God
-Dealt with heaven and the necessity of morality to get into heaven
Caesaropapism-When one person is the ruler
What is called Europe today didn't exist
What is called Europe today didn't exist since in middle ages because of completely different divisions
Founding of Constantinople-Constantine founded new capital
Founding of Constantinople-Constantine founded new capital at what was once Byzantium. Existed with Rome
Barbarians in the east of Rome were kept out mostly but
Barbarians in the east of Rome were kept out mostly but sometimes were hired into the Roman army
Decline in the West-West Rome began to decline
Decline in the West-West Rome began to decline for unknown reasons around 200 AD
Barbarian invasions-Around 400, barbarians
Barbarian invasions-Around 400, barbarians (especially Huns) invaded Roman empire
Byzantine empire-Capital at Constantinople, included Asia Minor peninsula,
Byzantine empire-Capital at Constantinople, included Asia Minor peninsula, Balkan peninsula, parts of Italy
Byzantine was Christian in religion and Greek in culture and language.
Byzantine was Christian in religion and Greek in culture and language. Not as culturally vibrant as Greece, Classical age. Still grand with Eastern emperor.
Arabic World-Most dynamic culture of about 700. Spain, North Africa, Roman
Arabic World-Most dynamic culture of about 700. Spain, North Africa, Roman empire areas, Arabia, Syria, and the East
Suras-Chapters in Koran
Muhommad's flight from Mecca
Leaders that were descendants of Muhommad
Caliph of Umayyad family
Murdered by another son-in-law of Muhommad, Ali. Ali was murdered soon after.
Minority of Ali followers
Umayyad family followers
Arab world built upon Greco-Roman culture
Arab world built upon Greco-Roman culture and religion but regarded Christians as infidels.
Byzantine and Arab World flourished without
Byzantine and Arab World flourished without much interruption (buildings, mathematics)
3rd segment of Greco-Roman world, Italy, France, Belgium, the Rhineland, Britain. Left overs from Byzantine and Arabic.
Little government in Latin Christendom
Little government in Latin Christendom, general lawlessness. Few barbarian kings.
Germanic customs-Heathens, no written language, folk lore of fighting and heroic (sometimes religion same qualities), tribal kinship, agriculture, and migratory at times, somewhat free and democratic, no sense of state
Lord and servant came when Germanic barbarians came
Lord and servant came when Germanic barbarians came, ruled peasants and protected, lived off produce
Christian church only thing to thrive across West
Growth of Monasteries
peaceful, separate sex houses that neighbors didn't disturb
No Roman emperor, so bishop
No Roman emperor, so bishop was head of it, Constantinople was still patriarchy
Petrine Supremacy-idea that Christ's authority went to Popes starting with St. Peter. Acknowledged by the "Donation of Constantine", though ended up being a forgery.
Conversion of Barbarians
Conversion of Barbarians-340 AD, church sent out people to convert the Germanic
711 Arabs invade Spain
800, Pope crowned
800, Pope crowned. Charlemagne emperor of West.
Charlemagne, in hopes of restoring peace with one state and one religion,
Charlemagne, in hopes of restoring peace with one state and one religion, conquered Western Europe. North became center.
Revival of learning-Charlemagne, though illiterate,
Revival of learning-Charlemagne, though illiterate, decided to revive clergy learning
Charlemagne established silver coinage
Second wave of invaders
all fronts, hurt Charlemagne's empire. Acclimated with Christianity in 1000.
"Great Schism of East and West"-
Division from Constantinople (Greek and Orthodox) and Rome (Latin Catholic) over who had greatest authority
West suffered more
Emerging Europe-by 1000, Europe as we know it emerged
Agriculture and population growth-agriculture tools greatly improved
Agriculture and population growth-agriculture tools greatly improved, population grew and people had better chance to leave things for kids to inherit
Slavery upgraded to
Slavery upgraded to serfdom
Communication amongst peoples and others lands improved
Three field system
Three field system-split land up with two crops and one resting soil, rotated, efficient
Feudalism-only local authority ran by counts who became lords for people who
Feudalism-only local authority ran by counts who became lords for people who accepted his protection, vassal ruled 2 states under him
Capetian King's-chosen by lords who became his vassals, Hugh Capet's offspring ruled France till Revolution
The Normans in England
The Normans in England-Duke of Normandy conquered England in 1066, ran strong feudal state
Feudalism more reciprocal
Feudalism more reciprocal than Roman past
Village-manor, populated by serfs who gave income for protection
Long Distance trade-
Long Distance trade-came before short distance, originated from Venetians, lead to merchants class
Towns emerge 1100, in wake of
Towns emerge 1100, in wake of lots of progress in agriculture and independent merchants. Usually paid tax straight to king, most independent in high trade areas, often formed town leagues for protection
Corporate liberties were greatly enjoyed by towns
Corporate liberties were greatly enjoyed by towns. No serfs in towns.
Towns controlled neighboring
Towns controlled neighboring commerce with tariffs to grantee food supply.
Guilds-craftsmen in towns
Guilds-craftsmen in towns formed them with a master to supervise. Regulated quality, all men, looked after members
Medieval economy was
Medieval economy was against competition
Peasants owed dues and fees to
Peasants owed dues and fees to lord even though serfdom greatly declined
Monarchies became hereditary
Monarchies became hereditary to settle disputes
Peasants expected to bring
Peasants expected to bring things to judge's attention
Taxation grew with towns, $
Taxation grew with towns, $ replacing what was goods dues
Parliaments grew out of royal councils.
Parliaments grew out of royal councils. They increased king's power, represented nation's interest.
England's parliament was partially elected (house of commons vs. house of lords)
Religion was omnipresent.
Religion was omnipresent. In culture. Leaders bound by holy oaths
Before 1000, the church was in
Before 1000, the church was in decay, monasteries in decay, pagan magic mixed with Christian belief. People illiterate except for some clergy.
Clergy had little
Clergy had little respect for rules.
Papacy had little influence
962 Holy Roman Empire proclaimed
962 Holy Roman Empire proclaimed. Supposed to continue Latin Christendom, extend and protect the faith.
Power wasn't acknowledged much
Power wasn't acknowledged much besides Germany and Italy who attempted to make the pope their appointee originally
Cluny, France monks attempted
Cluny, France monks attempted to live pure life and would only recognize Rome as an authority
1059 Pope Nicholas II decreed
1059 Pope Nicholas II decreed that future popes should be elected by cardinals not Holy Roman Emperor. Attempted to stop outside influences.
Gregory VII-Believed church should
Gregory VII-Believed church should be apart from worldly society, be able to judge all mankind's actions as sinful or not, punish kings and emperors for sins. Demanded celibacy. Annoyed Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. Gregory ended up excommunicating Henry IV who south penitence from the pope in Canossa in Italy.
Lay investure-practice when the emperor gave a new bishop the signs of his spiritual authority, a ring and staff. Pope Gregory prohibited this. Lay investure was settled in 1122, when bishops decided emperor was their feudal head but pope was spiritual authority.
Unwillingness of leaders to let
Unwillingness of leaders to let emperors build effective government contributed to centralization of Latin Christendom under Rome and blocked unified monarchial states in Europe.
Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III-Papacy from 1198-1216, virtually realized Pope Gregory's dream of a unified Christian world, intervened in politics, suppressed heresy. 1215 called great church council that went well. Forbad clergy from worldly temptations, controlled superstition and regulated the sacraments.
The founding of universities
The founding of universities-12th and 13th century saw first universities
Students and teachers helped
Students and teachers helped each other, many easily moving from university to university.
University became permanent
University became permanent institution from income from donors and land. Free from outside control.
Theology-intellectual study of religion, dominated first universities (11th century).
Arabic and Greek learning
Arabic and Greek learning-Arabs, whom Christians had contact with in Sicily and Spain, had translated Greek writing into Arabic. Christians then translated them into Latin.
Thomas Aquinas-Summa Theological was a summary of all knowledge he wrote. Worked on, as a scholastic philosopher, with reconciling Aristotle & other things with the Christian faith. Believed that religion not need be in conflict with logic. Thought all things below God were in descending order.
Religious fervor lead to
Religious fervor lead to brutal attacks against non-Christians
By 1300, Europe had arisen.
By 1300, Europe had arisen. Had separate institutions of church and state, long distance trade, councils on laws, ect.
Latin Christendom was one of the first societies to move towards secularization
Black death lead to
Black death lead to social and political repercussions
Disorginatiation lead to poor
Disorginatiation lead to poor not being able to find jobs but in some instances higher wages because of scarcity of laborers.
Upper classes attempted to
Upper classes attempted to control wages and prices, but rebellions ensued.
The peasants then received more
The peasants then received more favorable terms and went back to work. Small peasant property owners began to spring up
Noblemen also hurt by the turbulence
Noblemen also hurt by the turbulence of the plague and attempted to hold order through taxation and control of currency. Instead, power became more and more of the parliament.
Hundred Years War took place in
Hundred Years War took place in France between France and England. France was internally divided at the time. Lead to patriotism in England and stronger power of parliament.
Papacy began to
Papacy began to become corrupt
Unam Sanctam-Boniface VIII's declaration that the Roman church overpowered every human being
Babylonian Captivity-Arrest of Boniface VIII by French King Philip. The papacy lost much of its power.
The Great Schism (papacy)
The Great Schism (papacy)-After the Babylonian captivity, divided Cardinals, elected two popes. One lived in Rome, the other in Avignon, France.
Both papacies were incredibly
Both papacies were incredibly decadent and lead to a new class of international bankers.
However, people disturbed
However, people disturbed by their decadence
This uneasiness over who had
This uneasiness over who had the right spiritual answers lead to violence and religious hysteria. From the murder of Jews to self harm to ritual dancing.
Lollards and Hussites-
Lollards and Hussites-English were called Lollards when doubted the papacy, Hussites same idea but followers of John Huss
General council at Constance-
General council at Constance-Martin the V's council
Church positions were given for
Church positions were given for bribery, indulgences promoted by Boniface VIII, and church positions given to family members. All looked down upon.
Popes won out over
Popes won out over councilor movement
Renaissance was a rebirth because
Renaissance was a rebirth because it awakened to readopt the Greco-Roman customs
Outlook became more secular as
Outlook became more secular as material items offered by craftsmen became more readily available.
Italian towns were independent
Italian towns were independent city-states
Papacy was hectic, so didn't
Papacy was hectic, so didn't have much papal influence.
Oligarchy of merchants
Oligarchy of merchants was common
Florence was the chief city in Tuscany
Florence was the chief city in Tuscany and produced many talented individuals
Medici family were a powerful
Medici family were a powerful Florentine merchant family
The possibilities of humans to
The possibilities of humans to elevate themselves became more tantalizing than gloomy religious doctrine
Individualism grew important in
Individualism grew important in this atmosphere of human possibility. A great man dictated his own destiny.
A man who knew what he was
A man who knew what he was doing with his human powers was said to possess virtue.
Reality was something tangible.
Reality was something tangible. Function of arts to convey reality.
Greco-Roman architecture made a come back
Nude statues became a
Nude statues became a respected art form
Art began to attempt to depict
Art began to attempt to depict more realistic situations
Literary movement is called
Literary movement is called humanism because of the elevated interest in human letters.
Writers began to see literature as
Writers began to see literature as their life's work. Their writing explored their lives, social problems, ect.
Many humanists wrote in
Many humanists wrote in Italian aw well as Latin.
European vernacular (common speech) began to modeled to be appropriate for writing
Petrarch-traveling man considered first Florentine to be man of letters. Explored political problems and figures of the time, criticizing scholasticism among other things. Also a poet, plays, epics, ect.
Humanists had critical outlook
Renaissance gave birth to the
Renaissance gave birth to the kind of schooling of separated pupils by level and promoting them upwards
Renaissance schools focused on
Renaissance schools focused on rhetoric and examination of social life
The "courtier"-Humanist and renaissance ideal of what a real man was like. An intellectual, well learned in many aspects. Neat, courteous. Castiglione came up with the idea. Also thought women should be present to have a sensitizing presence.
Bruni-historian of Florence, Humanist
Renaissance marriages were decided
Renaissance marriages were decided by families. Woman often out lived husband and forced to run household themselves.
Italian renaissance had little centralized
Italian renaissance had little centralized government. Papacy was in decline, dictators rose and fell, politics corrupt.
Machiavelli hoped for a day
Machiavelli hoped for a day where Italians would stand up for themselves. Was considered cynical since he thought governments would only act in self interest.
1527 the venerable Italy was
1527 the venerable Italy was sacked by Spanish and German mercenaries. Renaissance in Italy faded but remained elsewhere.
People outside of Italy were
People outside of Italy were less aware of a great breaking renaissance
German owns were thriving
German owns were thriving at this time. Their greatest contribution was to science.
There were Christian humanists
There were Christian humanists as well as Pagan humanists
Mysticism didn't challenge the church,
Mysticism didn't challenge the church, it coexisted
The Sisters and Brothers of Common Life
The Sisters and Brothers of Common Life-Took place in Germany, Netherlands. Attempted to teach and relieving the poor. Didn't take vows, free to leave when chose.
Erasmus was Northern Humanist.
There are two history strains
There are two history strains, the Greco Roman and Judeo Christian
Greco Roman-Operated with humanism, what important is here on earth. "Know thyself."
Judeo Christian-Emphasis put on the after life.
Judaism was different because
Judaism was different because of its monotheistic, existential God, like in Job story.
Judaism was humanist in that
Judaism was humanist in that the Torah is a history book. Greco Roman quality is then a basis for Judeo Christianity.
Plato-Theory of forms
Biggest issue in Roman empire-
Biggest issue in Roman empire-the size. Laws couldn't be unified. Roman law, the laws to protect the state, became more important
Natural law"-Monotheistic God's laws that are attributed to a higher moral power
Socratic irony-the man who knows the most knows that he knows nothing.
Plutonic love-soul mate, a higher notion of love than others. However, he doesn't see erotic love as necessarily bad.
St. Augustine Vs. Plutonic love
St. Augustine Vs. Plutonic love-St. Augustine's City of God adapts Plutonic love by applying judgments to it like other Christians
Roman generals became too
Roman generals became too powerful since they had control over armies over widespread lands
Augustus was last great Roman emperor, refused to be deified
Augustus was last great Roman emperor, refused to be deified, was practical
Tiberius-Roman leader around time of Jesus
Marcus Orelius-ended Pax Romana
Perme vi va-
Perme vi va-Permit me to enter, from the Inferno
Terzarema-the rhyme scheme in the Inferno
William of Occum-
William of Occum-head of Oxford, believed in inductive reasoning Aquinas looked to God while Occum was much more practical
Church threatened by Aristotle
Church threatened by Aristotle strain. Even though they were religious, Aristotle strain thought Plato strain was arrogant. How could you know everything.
Catholic Church supported strain
Catholic Church supported strain: Plato-Augustine-Thomas Aquinas (scholasticism)-Summa theological
Aristotle strain: Aristotle-Byzantine/Arab/Moor-Inductive reasoning of William of Occum
Divine comedy was
Divine comedy was scholasticism
Divine comedy's rhyme scheme
Divine comedy's rhyme scheme emphasizes 3's because of holy trinity
Symbolic/poetic retribution-punishment fits the crime
Aquinas thought love on earth
Aquinas thought love on earth was doomed
Ulysses was an evil counselor
Ulysses was an evil counselor for bringing his ship to purgatory
Popes in order Innocent III,
Popes in order Innocent III, Sixtus IV, Innocent VIII, Leo X, Julius II, Gregory VII
Scholastism is not the opposite
Scholastism is not the opposite of humanism
Aquinas' proof that God exists
Aquinas' proof that God exists-What came before existence. Called first cause theory.
Gregory VIII and Innocent III made
Gregory VIII and Innocent III made incredibly powerful papacies
Feudalism-government by large landowners. If you could defend the land, it was yours.
Central government is absent in
Central government is absent in Feudalism
Visigoths, Saxons, Francs
Visigoths, Saxons, Francs were particularly strong land owning groups
Closive establishes a rather
Closive establishes a rather unimpressive dynasty in France
1732-Francs defend their land
1732-Francs defend their land from Moors
Even by time Mohammad dies, Islam is
Even by time Mohammad dies, Islam is well spread
Buburs come up to Spain from Africa and
Buburs come up to Spain from Africa and spread Islam there
Tours is where Charles Martell
Tours is where Charles Martell stopped the moors spreading and pushed them back. This establishes a grand Franco dynasty
Pepper the short, Charles' son,
Pepper the short, Charles' son, continues to be successful
800, Pepper's son, Charlemagne runs
800, Pepper's son, Charlemagne runs France, Germany, Northern Italy
Charlegmane's son couldn't hold
Charlegmane's son couldn't hold it together. The Carliginean renaissance was from Charles to Charlemagne and feudalism surrounded it.
In 900, there were about
In 900, there were about 3000 states.
Lord vassal relationship
Lord vassal relationship-lord gives vassal land, vassal gives him his service and loyalty. This is a paying of homage.
Problem is, many lords are
Problem is, many lords are vassals to someone else. Lots of people created meaningless titles for themselves this way
Just like every lord is a vassal,
Just like every lord is a vassal, a vassal is the lord of the manor with serfs. Serfs give wealth for paternal relationships.
Lord has bailiff who does the
Lord has bailiff who does the reading and foremen who enforces the laws
There was no central authority
There was no central authority except the church
Church had courts, monasteries, parishes
Although lords want
Although lords want most power, submit to church because some order is beneficial
Monasteries became pretty
Monasteries became pretty corrupt but they did same the Greco-Roman books
Parish priest makes the peasants
Parish priest makes the peasants think their lives worth living. Partially literate.
Excommunication and the
Excommunication and the interdict were the two great powers the church had
The interdict involved removing
The interdict involved removing the priest, people would riot against lord
900 Pope Gregory Vs. Roman
900 Pope Gregory Vs. Roman Henry IV over lay investiture. Gregory feared Henry selling these jobs threatened his power and had him whipped
1095-Papacy army formed
1054-Great schisms over how powerful papacy is, Roman empire against their power
The first crusade was not the
The first crusade was not the first crusade
The first crusade was
The first crusade was the peasants crusade
1095 Urban II,
1095 Urban II, Byzantines were under threat of Muslims. The sultan ruled the Arab world at the time, ruling with an Alysid caliph
Right around 1064,
Right around 1064, the schism of Constantinople and Rome
Urban II was then contacted from the
Urban II was then contacted from the Byzantines to ask for support against Arabs.
1095 Pope Urban II, goes to
1095 Pope Urban II, goes to France to get crusaders from peasants, Thesse peasants get nowhere near Middle East. Confused, attack hungry
The act of raising these people
The act of raising these people caused nobles to realize the extent of papal power and gave pope great support
1096 first crusade using nobles.
1096 first crusade using nobles. Get knowledge and cultural from Middle East. Makes the world smaller.
Europeans left out because
Europeans left out because of their stupid feudal system
Crusades may have triggered the
Crusades may have triggered the renascence. Goods went from ME to Italy and Italy to the world. Caused feudal independence for Italy.
With trade comes merchants
With trade comes merchants, comes wealth, comes leisure, comes thought
Crusades were successful for
Crusades were successful for about the first 50 years then dwindled. Lost crusade 2, 3, and 4.
Crusades become something for
Crusades become something for brave nobles, a way of life
Crusade 4-Constantinople was sacked. Great disaster. Almost fell to Turks but a Mongol invasion stopped this
Italians pretty much kicked out of ME by
Italians pretty much kicked out of ME by 3rd crusade
By Innocent III, church didn't do
By Innocent III, church didn't do much to fund. People who left to crusade paid their own way.
Crusading corruption was great,
Crusading corruption was great, associated with church corruption
Church power declines after
Church power declines after Innocent III because more powerful kings and corruption
By 1300, jubilee, Pope
By 1300, jubilee, Pope Boniface is ransomed and fights the French king. Later, the pope was French since Cardinals were greatly influenced by French king Philip the Fair. New pope moved papacy to Avignon, France. Some felt papacy was kidnapped
1338, war between France and
1338, war between France and England (100 years war). England was first more successful due to weapons that were superior
1448, the plague hits France
1448, the plague hits France and Italy really hard
1378, France has Avinion papacy
1378, France has Avinion papacy while there was western schism because cardinals also elected Roman pope
1404-Majority of cardinals pull
1404-Majority of cardinals pull together to vote in new pope. However, both other popes alive. Now 3 popes all with followers.
1415-Council of Constantine,
1415-Council of Constantine, Martin V reaffirms we'll only have one pop. Huss had campaign in Prague that papacy was too decadent. The church agreed to have Huss come for free to come talk to the council. Then, Huss is captured, tried, and burned alive. Church unites and frightens. However, the church's success here goes onto decline
The plague had greater
The plague had greater effect on people's trust in Catholic church, greater even than the kidnapping and schisms
Medical art tried to
Medical art tried to represent the important thing in the picture first
"Per me si va nella citta dolente"
"Per me si va nella citta dolente" I am the city of woe
Beatrice sent Virgil to lead Dante
Celestine V was
Celestine V was the great denial
Francesca and Paolo are
Francesca and Paolo are being punished because they couldn't control their lust
Greeks! You were not mean to
Greeks! You were not mean to live like brutes but to press on toward manhood and recognition
Nulla Salus extra ecclesiam-
Nulla Salus extra ecclesiam-Outside the church there is no salvation
Lasciate ogni speranza, voi ch'entrat-
Lasciate ogni speranza, voi ch'entrat-Abondon all hope, ye that enter here
E pur si muove-
E pur si muove-and yet it moves. Galileo said this after being put to death.
Torquemada-Prominent leader of Spanish inquisition
Savonarola-Italian priest who burnt books, hostile towards renaissance and immoral art
Protested Borgia's and when
Protested Borgia's and when demanding a hat of blood after being offered to be a cardinal, he was executed.
Chaucer-Writer, demonstrated artistic possibilities of Italian vernacular with his Canterbury Tales.
Erasmus-Attempted to change the church from within due to clerical abuses. Christian humanist. Scholar who prepared new editions in Latin and Greek new testaments
Cellini-Wrote autobiography about his murders. Was a goldsmith, painter, sculptor, musician, in the renaissance
Giordano Bruno-Italian philosopher who was burned at the stake for his ideas on the infinity of the univese
Thomas More-Became Lord Chancellor, Rennasciance humanist and violent opponent of Martin Luther's reformation. Coined the term utopia. Patron saint of politicians
Anselm-Worked with Urban II to further the crusades
Anselm-Worked with Urban II to further the crusades
Abelard-Had a love affair, French scholastic philosopher, important theologian
John Wycliffe-Followers were the Lollards
Gutenberg-Invented mechanical printing press
Ninth circle of hell
Ninth circle of hell-traitors of kin, traitors to homeland or party, then traitors against benefactors
2nd Circle of hell-
2nd Circle of hell-the lustful
8th circle of hell
8th circle of hell-fraudulent counselors
Intellectual life had
Intellectual life had vanished
Incessant warfare, corruption, lawlessness...
ii. Incessant warfare, corruption, lawlessness, obsession with strange myths, and mindlessness
Europe troubled since Rome's
Europe troubled since Rome's fall in the fifth centrury for various reasons
Famines and plague
Famines and plague were present, little infastructure, Lost arts, ironmaking, bricklaying, few farm tool, homicides and kidnapping for a living common
People huddled together
eople huddled together, many unintelligable dialects
Converting pagans was easy, but little truly converted
Converting pagans was easy, but little truly converted. Little understood Christianity
Punisment for small crimes
unisment for small crimes often death
devout scorned reasoning
evout scorned reasoning, spared with eachother
The city of God by Saint Augustine -
xii. The city of God by Saint Augustine - challenged the idea that Rome was being punished for new faith, rather being punished for sins
int Augustine believed in two cities, city of man and city of God. Men would travel in between both but could and should spend their time in God's. believed in something women really liked, that we are "damned by a woman" and are to be "delivered by a woman" as in eve to the modanna
Church had issues with
Church had issues with Holy Roman emporers till 13th century
Pagan gods and holidays were
xvi. Pagan gods an dholidays were still celebrated throughout this Christian time
Barter economy meant only coinage was paid to lords
Dark ages bad time for clever, cerebal, great for handsome, healthy, strong
xviii. Dark ages bad time for clever, cerebal, great for handsome, healthy, strong. i. Nobelmen soon became a ruling class as time went on.
xix. Many of early kings were barbarian kings thought to be gods or descended from them
xix. Many of early kings were barbarian kings thought to be gods or descended from them. i. Sucessors were crowned by Christian preists
xx. Hereditary monarchy came about with medival times
xx. Hereditary monarchy came about with medival times. xxi. Cheiftans were chosen for merit often for life
xxii. Church was God's work therefore incapable of reform
xxii. Church was God's work therefore incapable of reform. xxiii. Medival peasants had lack of ego. i. Lack of identity, had lord's last name, no sense of time except by reasons
b. By 1500, shift from knights and lords lead to the leadership of absolute monarchs.
b. By 1500, shift from knights and lords lead to the leadership of absolute monarchs. i. Feelings of national identity came about. ii. Powerful spirit arrived with education, tales of church corruption, greek and roman culture remerged. iii. 1400 renassciance began. Artists came first, Floritines, especially Leonardo da Vinci.
a. Maggellan remaped the world
a. Maggellan remaped the world by landing in the Phillipines (perhaps accidently) and completing the encirclement of the earth. i. Men began challenging more seemingly unmovable ideas
b. Minorities suffered under
b. Minorities suffered under tyrants (Spanish inquisition)
c. Disease was more
c. Disease was more widespread
d. Intrigue, no fair trials,
d. Intrigue, no fair trials, noncomformity and weakness despised
e. Papacy was home to killers,
e. Papacy was home to killers, intrigue, blackmail, and selling pardons
f. Papacy was incredibly decadent
f. Papacy was incredibly decadent. g. Popularity poisoned Christ's pure vision
h. Girolamo Savanarola
h. Girolamo Savanarola was against sexual promsecutiy of the church and turned down pope's attempts to silence him, was hanged
i. Bishop was heart of medival communities
i. Bishop was heart of medival communities surrounded by walls and watchmen, punishments were given but no prisons, filthy areas, little air or light
j. Merchant class arose when
j. Merchant class arose when commerce came about between towns, greatly feared by clergy for takeover
k. Vast majority medival people lived
k. Vast majority medival people lived in villages of 100 people, not towns, isolated
l. Knights lived in
l. Knights lived in manor houses
m. Women claimed to be penetrated
m. Women claimed to be penetrated by incubus when husband was aware, direct accusations were rare
n. Food habits
n. Food habits i. Two meals a day, years of hunger occurred with cannibalism
o. Few people lived to be 30, were short
o. Few people lived to be 30, were short. p. Clothing designated status
q. Punishments for crimes from church
q. Punishments for crimes from church included exile and journeys
r. Science, magic, religion
r. Science, magic, religion mixed freely
s. Traveling was treacherous,
s. Traveling was treacherous, inns were too, highwaymen violent, travelers stuck together
t. Females could marry
t. Females could marry at 12, boys at 14
u. Marriages often announced
u. Marriages often announced when pregnancy would show, not scandalous
v. Engaged people slept together
v. Engaged people slept together freely and pregnant girls most often could marry
w. Nobel rarely faithful since no marriage for love, lots of lovers.
w. Nobel rarely faithful since no marriage for love, lots of lovers. i. Francis I of France bed many woman as king.
x. Borgias were incestual, murderous pope family
x. Borgias were incestual, murderous pope family. y. Art was everywhere, music, cathedrals, popped up.
z. Copernicus suggested
z. Copernicus suggested the sun was center of universe
aa. Leonardo Divinci questioned
aa. Leonardo Divinci questioned everything and eventually was tortured and excommnitcaed, studied anatomy
bb. Until late 15th century, all
bb. Until late 15th century, all education and books controlled by church in mostly illiterate society
cc. Local language prevailed
cc. Local language prevailed over latin and literacy spread with great desire with new inventions of paper and ink. Tried to stop it but it failed
dd. Medieval education
dd. Medieval education. i. Popular education was unambitious, pupils helped eachother, apprentices were fewer, higher education was another world.
ee. 16th century classics were
ee. 16th century classics were translated and Machiavelli came into place
ff. Higher education dominated by animism
ff. Higher education dominated by animism (souls to all living things) and scholasticism (sought to put Christian theology in everything. i. Higher education full of strange rules.
gg. Those interested in true learning
gg. Those interested in true learning became self taught - along came humanists
hh. Humanists discussed both learning and civilization
hh. Humanists discussed both learning and civilization. ii. Humanists were greatly honored as if nobility.
jj. Most humanists in the beginning were Christian and held loyalty to rome.
kk. Skepticism and sacrilege came with time with humanists
ll. Humanism was great threat to the church for
Great logic. Less occupied with after life.
wrote stories about the plague. They were about humanisit interest in psychology. Stories make fun of priests. Humanist and about people.
Family of bankers and textile merchants. Very important Italian family.
City state family that ran Italy
wrote satirical pieces that were for church reform
wrote sexual love poems