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Cells (basic info)

cells are the subunits of organisms; lowest level of structure able to perform all functions of life

organisms

the units of life

4 main functions to be an organism

uptake and processing of nutrients, excretion of wastes, response to environmental stimuli, and reproduction

multicellular organism's 3 structures above the cell

tissues, organs, and organ systems

populations

localized groups of organisms belonging to the same species

biological community

several species in the same area

emergent properties

result from interactions between components

order from biosphere to organisms

Biology, Ecosystem, Community, Population, Organisms (BECPO)

order from organs/organ systems to molecules

Organs, Tissue, Cells, Organelles, Molecules

Cells (structure)

highly ordered structures that carry out complicated processes

Cell Theory

1. All living things consist of cells 2. All cells come from other cells

Membrane (function?)

Encloses cells, regulates passage of materials between cell and surroundings

What do all cells contain? (At some point)

DNA

DNA (according to cells)

The heritbale material that directs cell activity

2 Major Kind of Cells

Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic

Types of Prokaryotic Cells

Cells of the microorganims called archaea and bacteria

Types of Eukaryotic Cells

All other types of cells besides prokaryotic

Eukaryotic Cells possess...?

Functionally-diverse organelles

How are chromosomes formed? (Euk.)

The combination of DNA and proteins

Cytoplasm

A thick solution called cytosol

SOMEeukaryotic cells possess what type of cell wall?

External cell wall

MOST Prokaryotic cells possess what type of cell wall?

External cell wall

Where is DNA located in prokaryotic cells?

In the cytoplasm in a nucleus of a prokaryotic cell

There are ______ membrane-enclosed organelles in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells?

ZERO

DNA is the substance of _____?

Genes

Genes

The unit of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring

Nucleotides

Genetic information specifically arranged (ATCGTA...)

____ forms of life employ the same _____ code

All; genetic

How is the diversity of life generated?

By different expressions of the same genetic code

What programs biological order?

The genetic code

Genome

The entire library of genetic instructions that an organims inherits

The genome of a human cell is about _______ letters long

3 billion

Solar energy to chemical energy is...?

Kinetic energy

Heat

The unordered energy of random molecular motion

Life creates order by harvesting energy from...?

Sunlight

How do organisms obtain energy from fuels such as sugar?

Cells break the molecules down in a series of closely regulated reactions

Enzymes

Special protein molecules used to catalyze reactions

What are enzymes used for when muscles are at rest?

Used to store energy in complex sugars

When muscles need more energy enzymes are used to...?

Catalyze the break down of sugar molecules, releasing energy

Self-Regulating

An output signal or product of the process regulates that process

Most biological processes are...?

Self-regulated

Negative Feedback

Slows or stops a process

Feedback Inhibition is synonymous with...?

Negative Feedback

Positive Feedback

Speeds a process up

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