A general term for any treatment process. Refers to a variety of psychological and biomedical techniques aimed at dealing with mental disorders or coping with problems of living.
Psychological therapies (13.02)
Therapies based on psychological principles; often called psychotherapy.
Biomedical therapies (13.03)
Treatments that focus on altering the brain, especially with drugs, psychosurgery, or electroconvulsive therapy.
Insight therapies (13.04)
Psychotherapies in which the therapist helps patients/clients understand their problems.
Talk therapies (13.05)
Psychotherapies that focus on communicating and verbalizing emotions and motives to understand their problems.
The form of psychodynamic therapy developed by Sigmund Freud. The goal is to release conflicts and memories from the unconscious.
Analysis of transference (13.07)
The Freudian technique of analyzing and interpreting the patient's relationship with the therapist, based on the assumption that this relationship mirrors unresolved conflicts in the patient's past.
Neo-Freudian psychodynamic therapies (13.08)
Therapies for mental disorder that were developed by psychodynamic theorists who embraced some of Freud's ideas but disagreed with others.
Humanistic therapies (13.09)
Treatment techniques based on the assumption that people have a tendency for positive growth and self-actualization, which may be blocked by an unhealthy environment that can include negative self-evaluation and criticism from others.
Client-centered therapy (13.10)
A humanistic approach to treatment developed by Carl Rogers, emphasizing an individual's tendency for healthy psychological growth through self-actualization.
Reflection of feeling (13.11)
Carl Rogers's technique of paraphrasing the clients' words, attempting to capture the emotional tone expressed.
Cognitive therapy (13.12)
Emphasizes rational thinking as the key to treating mental disorder.
Group therapy (13.13)
Any form of psychotherapy done with more than one client/patient at a time. It is often done from a humanistic perspective.
Self-help support groups (13.14)
Groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, that provide social support and an opportunity for sharing ideas about dealing with common problems.
Behavior modification (13.15)
Another term for behavior therapy.
Behavior therapy (13.16)
Any form of psychotherapy based on the principles of behavioral learning, especially operant conditioning and classical conditioning.
Systematic desensitization (13.17)
A behavioral therapy technique in which anxiety is extinguished by exposing the patient to an anxiety-provoking stimulus.
Exposure therapy (13.18)
A form of desensitization therapy in which the patient directly confronts the anxiety-provoking stimulus.
Aversion therapy (13.19)
As a classical conditioning procedure, aversive counter-conditioning involves presenting individuals with an attractive stimulus paired with unpleasant stimulation in order to condition revulsion.
Contingency management (13.20)
An operant conditioning approach to changing behavior by altering the consequences, especially rewards and punishments, of behavior.
Token economy (13.21)
An operant technique applied to groups, such as classrooms or mental hospital wards, involving the distribution of "tokens" or other indicators of reinforcement contingent on desired behaviors.
Participant modeling (13.22)
A social-learning technique in which a therapist demonstrates and encourages a client to imitate a desired behavior.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (13.23)
A newer form of psychotherapy that combines the techniques of cognitive therapy with those of behavior therapy.
Rational-emotive behavior therapy (13.24)
Also known as REBT, Albert Ellis's brand of cognitive therapy, based on the idea that irrational thoughts and behaviors are the cause of mental disorders.
Active listener (13.25)
A person who gives the speaker feedback in such forms as nodding, paraphrasing, maintaining an expression that shows interest, and asking questions for clarification.
The prescribed use of drugs to help treat symptoms of mental illness ostensibly to ensure that individuals are more receptive to talk therapies.
Antipsychotic drugs (13.27)
Medicines that diminish psychotic symptoms, usually by their effect on the dopamine pathways in the brain.
Tardive dyskinesia (13.28)
An incurable disorder of motor control, especially involving muscles of the face and head, resulting from long-term of antipsychotic drugs.
Antidepressant drugs (13.29)
Medicines that affect depression, usually by their effect on the serotonin and/or norepinephrine pathways in the brain.
Lithium carbonate (13.30)
A simple chemical compound that is highly effective in dampening the extreme mood swings of bipolar disorder.
Antianxiety drugs (13.31)
A category of drugs the includes the barbiturates and benzodiazepines, drugs that diminish feelings of anxiety.
Drugs that normally increase activity level by encouraging communication among neurons in the brain. Stimulants, however, have been found to suppress activity level in persons with ADHD.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
Also known as ADHD, a common problem in children who have difficulty controlling their behavior and focusing their attention.
The general term for surgical intervention in the brain to treat psychological disorders.
Electroconvulsive therapy (13.35)
Also known as ECT, a treatment used primarily for depression and involving the application of an electric current to the head, producing a generalized seizure.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (13.36)
Also known as TMS, a treatment that involves magnetic stimulation of specific regions of the brain.
Therapeutic community (13.37)
Jones's term for a program of treating mental disorder by making the institutional environment supportive and humane for patients.
The policy of removing patients, whenever possible, from mental hospitals.
Community mental health movement (13.39)
An efffort to deinstitutionalize mental patients and to provide therapy from outpatient clinics. Proponents of community mental health envisioned that recovering patients could live with their families, in foster homes, or in group homes.