Baptism and Anointing of the Sick
What sacraments were the faithful permitted to receive during "Church lockout"?
1set minimum age for marriage, 2Church courts fined men who seriously injured wives (rule of thumb), and 3double standard-Church punished women for offenses more harshly than men
In what ways did the Church attempt to protect women during the Middle Ages?
What type of behavior/activity was stressed in the Benedictine Rule?
schools, hospitals, and hospice for travelers and pilgrims
What types of social services did monasteries and convents provide during the Middle Ages?
1return to poverty - not manual labor, 2emphasis on prayer and liturgical ceremony, 3end secular interference (end interference of kings, nobles, etc.)
What were the goals of the Cluniac movement?
One of these, I think it's the one in bold:
1 - extended Cluniac reforms throughout entire institution of Church
2 - prohibited Simony - buying and selling of Church offices
3 - outlawed marriage for priests
4 - forbade lay investiture - prohibited appointment of Church officials by secular rulers
What non-religious (non-dogmatic) reform was instituted by Pope Gregory VII?
1owning land and 2participating in many occupations like trade and handicrafts
What restrictions did the Catholic Church impose on Jews during the Middle Ages?
colonization of England; they cut down primeval forests and developed heavy clay soil of central England for cultivation
What was the greatest achievement of the Anglo-Saxons?
every vassal swore first allegiance to William over all other lords, making him the liege lord
What "key" action was taken by William I to strengthen the allegiance of English nobles to the monarchy and central government?
ruled England - Normandy - Anjou (northern France south of Normandy)
As he began his reign, what territories did Henry II of England control?
development of Common Law
What was Henry II's greatest contribution to the growth of strong central government in England?
called to give evidence on which they had personal knowledge, accuse suspected criminals, and testify to royal order and finances in area
What was the function of the earliest juries in the English judicial system?
Henry claimed right to try clerics accused of crimes (e.g., murder) in civil court. Thomas fiercely opposed king on issue
What was the issue over which Henry II and Thomas Becket quarreled?
1 - placed limits on power of king
2 - financial limits established on "scutage" (shield money) and inheritance for fiefs
3 - widows could not be compelled to remarry-remarriage did require lord's consent
4 - guarantees of basic rights to all English citizens (A) right of representative parliament to control taxation, (B) right of trial by a jury of peers (as several clauses were interpreted later in the 16th and 17th centuries)
What principles were contained in the Magna Carta when it was first promulgated in 1215 AD?
his domain (Ile-de-France) was very small, and he posed no threat/challenge to nobles
Why did French nobles elect Hugh Capet as the French king in 987 A.D.?
~1 - established continuity by: (A) each king ruled long time (average 30 plus years), and (B) each king had son crowned before dying - (smooth succession)
~2 - gained complete control of personal domains - became base from which to expand power
~3 - established efficient and loyal bureaucracy by: (A) collected taxes, (B) imposed royal law (to increase the power of the central government), and (C) "A and B" increased prestige - helped gain support of middle class towns
~4 - Capetians (especially Louis VI the Fat) allied with Catholic Church by: (A) used armies to protect monasteries and towns complaining of oppression by feudal lords, and (B) used feudal law to force lords to appear in court and stripped nobles of possessions
Through what means did the early Capetian kings strengthen theirs and the power of the central government in France?
~1 - used paid officials who were loyal to him and were drawn from Church, middle class, poorer nobility
~2 - granted charters to new towns
~3 - organized a standing army
~4 - introduced national tax
Through what means/actions did Philip II strengthen the power of the central government during his reign?
What heresy was used by Philip II to justify his military action(s) in southern France?
Philip tried to collect taxes from clergy without papal consent
Over what issue did Philip IV and Pope Boniface clash?
when Philip sent troops to arrest Boniface and the pope escaped
What was the most obvious manifestation of the decrease in papal prestige resulting from the clash between Pope Boniface and Philip IV of France?
lay investiture (secular rulers claiming the right to appoint church officials)
What was the "key" issue over which popes and Holy Roman Emperors clashed?
pope relinquished demand to rule religious estates in Germany
What concession to the Holy Roman Emperor(s) did the Catholic Church make as a result of the Concordat of Worms?