Chapter 4 Vocab.

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Rh factor

An individual either has, or does not have, the "Rhesus factor" on the surface of their red blood cells. This term strictly refers only to the most immunogenic D antigen of the Rh blood group system, or the Rh- blood group system. The status is usually indicated by Rh positive (Rh+ does have the D antigen) or Rh negative (Rh- does not have the D antigen) suffix to the ABO blood type

benign

a medical term used to describe a condition that is harmless in the long run

metastatic

the spread of a disease from one organ or part to another non-adjacent organ or part.[

hypersensitivity

refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity. These reactions may be damaging, uncomfortable, or occasionally fatal.

immune complex

the formation of antigen-antibody complexes. formed from the integral binding of an antibody to a soluble antigen.

autoimmunity

the failure of an organism in recognizing its own constituent parts as self, which allows an immune response against its own cells and tissues. The loss of self tolerance.

isograft

a graft of tissue between two individuals who are genetically identical

allograft

the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a (genetically non-identical) donor of the same species.

autograft

the transplantation of organs, tissues or even proteins from one part of the body to another in the same individual.

xenograft

the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another.

asthma

the common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm.

allergen

an antigen capable of stimulating a type-I hypersensitivity reaction in atopic individuals through Immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses.

histamine

an organic nitrogen compound involved in local immune responses as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter; triggers the inflammatory response.

immunodeficiency

a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent; the body is incapable of making or sustaining an adequate immune response.

immunosurveillance

a theory formulated in 1957 by Burnet and Thomas, who proposed that lymphocytes act as sentinels in recognizing and eliminating continuously arising, nascent transformed cells; (look for better answer in book)

delayed hypersensitivity

the reaction takes two to three days to develop. Unlike the other types, it is not antibody mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. (look for better answer in book)

anaphylaxis

"a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death".[1] It typically results in a number of symptoms including an itchy rash, throat swelling, and low blood pressure. Common causes include insect bites, foods, and medications.

hives

a kind of skin rash notable for pale red, raised, itchy bumps; frequently caused by allergic reactions; however, there are many non-allergic causes.

osteomyelitis

an infection of the bone or bone marrow.

teratogenic

abnormalities of physiological development. It is often thought of as the study of human birth defects, but it is much broader than that, taking in other non-birth developmental stages, including puberty; and other non-human life forms, including plants

immune globulin

a large Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target, called an antigen

granulomas

a medical term for a tiny collection of immune cells known as macrophages; form when the immune system attempts to wall off substances that it perceives as foreign but is unable to eliminate.

keratitis

a condition in which the eye's cornea, the front part of the eye, becomes inflamed. The condition is often marked by moderate to intense pain and usually involves impaired eyesight.

dermis

a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain

epidermis

composed of the outermost layers of cells in the skin

toxemia

the presence of bacteria in the blood. Can also be defined as a medical condition in which hypertension arises in pregnancy (pregnancy-induced hypertension) in association with significant amounts of protein in the urine.

woolsorters disease

a form of anthrax infection acquired by inhalation of dust containing Bacillus anthracis; initial symptoms (chill and cough and dyspnea and rapid pulse) are followed by extreme cardiovascular collapse

universial precautions

refers to the practice, in medicine, of avoiding contact with patients' bodily fluids, by means of the wearing of nonporous articles such as medical gloves, goggles, and face shields.

Diabetes mellitus type I

results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.

Graves Disease

an autoimmune disease where the thyroid is overactive, producing an excessive amount of thyroid hormones (a serious metabolic imbalance known as hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis

Hashimoto's

an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed by a variety of cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes.

Multiple Sclerosis

an inflammatory disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged, leading to demyelination and scarring as well as a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms.[1] Disease onset usually occurs in young adults, and it is more common in women.[1] It has a prevalence that ranges between 2 and 150 per 100,000.

myasthenia gravis

an autoimmune neuromuscular disease leading to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatiguability. It is an autoimmune disorder, in which weakness is caused by circulating antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors at the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction,[1] inhibiting the excitatory effects of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on nicotinic receptors throughout neuromuscular junctions.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosis

systemic autoimmune disease (or autoimmune connective tissue disease) that can affect any part of the body. As occurs in other autoimmune diseases, the immune system attacks the body's cells and tissue, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage.[1] It is a Type III hypersensitivity reaction caused by antibody-immune complex formation.

Rhematoid Arthritis

a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks flexible (synovial) joints. The process produces an inflammatory response of the capsule around the joints (synovium) secondary to swelling (hyperplasia) of synovial cells, excess synovial fluid, and the development of fibrous tissue (pannus) in the synovium. The pathology of the disease process often leads to the destruction of articular cartilage and ankylosis of the joints.

Wegener's Granulomatosis

an incurable form of vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) that affects the nose, lungs, kidneys and other organs. Due to its end-organ damage, it is life-threatening and requires long-term immunosuppression.[

Cancer

a failure of the body's defense, including the immune system

Acne

hair follicle infection that spreads into surrounding tissue, generating an abcess.

Impetigo

a contagious skin infection of children caused by Staph Aureus or Strept pyrogenes; causes thin-walled abcesses that look like blisters or "weeping lesions with scabs.

Necrotizing Fasciitis

(flesh-eating disease) primarily caused by a toxin of Strept pyrogenes. organism is spread along the fascia and must be treated very agressively with removal of infected tissue and antibiotics. 50% fatality

Furuncle (boil)

caused by Staph aureus which forms abcesses in hair follicles. They must be lanced/drained and can be treated with antibiotics

Candidiasis

common b/c part of normal flora; Can cause thrush, diaper rash, vaginitis - all of which allow yeast to overgrow. Caused by a FUNGUS

Tinea (AKA ringworm)

due to dermatophye fungi that infect the skin's outer layers. can usually be treated with OTC agents; can be pread person to person. Common in atheletes.

Warts

caused by HPV; affect different parts of the body and can be surgically removed or chemically treated, but virus will always remain in surrounding tissue.

Herpes Simplex Virus

usually associated with skin infections above the waist (exception would be oral sex) and is spread by direct contact. Once th lesion resolves the virus becomes latent in nerve ganglia and can be reactiviated during the physical/psychological stress, certain foods, exposure to sun, etc. Typical type I lesions are singular. VIRUS WILL ALWAYS BE PRESENT.

Rubeola (Red measles)

causes red measles, a respitory spread disease now uncommon b/c of the MMR vaccine. Koplik spots - small white spots surrounded by red ring on inside of gums and top of mouth. They appear before the skin rash.

Rubella (German Measles)

a respitory spread disease that results in a mild skin rash. This is a teratogenic virus (causes birth defects) if contracted early in pregnancy leading to congenital rubella syndrome.

Chickenpox

caused by Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV). It is transmitted through respiratory droplets and is the most contagious human disease.

Shingles

a reactivation of VZV leading to painful vesicular eruptions all along the nerve pathway served by the ganglia where the virus was dormant. Lesions may last weeks-months and few treatments besides TLC and steroids.

Smallpox

possible bioterrorism weapon; hasn't been seen since 70's. easily pread through respiratory droplets, causes a pustular which cause disfigurement/scarring and has a fairly high mortality rate. NO TREATMENT. Caused by Variola virus. First vaccine produced by Jenner.

Tetanus

a toxemia caused by gram positive rod-shaped bacteria named Clostridium tetani that produces a spore. this organism is normally found in the gut flora of horses, cattle and other grazing animals. Humans are infected through animal bites, scratches, punture wounds contaminated with dirt containing spore. Causes muscle spasms leading to paralysis (lockjaw) with CNS damage. Can be prevented with tetanus shot (every 7-10 years).

Anthrax

a toxemia caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming gram-positive rod which usually causes diseases in grazing animals, but can be transmitted to humans through skin wounds or inhalation of spores. formerly called "woolsorters disease". Can be treated with antibiotics, however, the pulmonary form of anthrax is usually fatal.

Lyme Disease

caused by spiral shaped bacteria named Borellia burgdorferi which is spread through deer ticks. characterized by a bulls0eye shaped rash at the site of the bite within 30 days and flu-like syptoms. can be treated with antibiotic.

Rocky Moutain Spotted Fever

caused by gram negative rod called Rickettsia rickettsii and is transmitted by ticks. Causes a spotted rash which results as fluid leaks from damaged blood vessels in skin and organs.

Conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva usually caused by bacteria such as Staph aureus, Strept pneumoniae, and Neisseriae gonorrheae. AKA "pinkeye"

Trachoma

caused by Chlamydia trachomatis; leading cause of preventable blindness in the world

Ophthalmia Neomatorum

AKA conjunctivitis of the newborn; caused by bacteria such as Neisseriae gonorrheae, and Chlamydia trachomatis. transferred in an infected birth canal.

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