Survey research involves _____ - the process of selecting for study a limited number of subjects who are representative of entire groups sharing similar characteristics, called the population.
The reporting accuracy of self-report studies is impacted by
the "missing cases" phenomenon.
Which of the following statements lends support to liberal feminist theory?
Female arrest rates are increasing.
While self-report studies can be used to examine the offense history of prison inmates and drug users, most self-report studies have focused on
The Uniform Crime Report is a primary source of crime data collected by the
Federal Bureau of Investigation.
A validity concern associated with the NCVS involves
victims overreporting crime.
When evaluating the three primary sources of crime data, the crime patterns and trends
are often quite similar.
Which of the following is not a key predictive factor for chronicity?
adequate parental supervision and control
The UCR expresses data as raw figures, crime rates, and changes in the number and rate over time. How are crime rates expressed in the UCR?
rates per 100,000 total U.S. population
In Wolfgang et al.'s famous study of male juvenile delinquents, what percentage were chronic offenders?
Referring to the ecology of crime, when is crime most likely to happen?
on July 1st with a temperature of 80 degrees
How does today's violent crime rate compare to the violent crime rate in 1991?
Today's violent crime rate as decreased by nearly 40%.
What shortcoming in the UCR is addressed by the National Crime Victimization survey?
the nonreporting issue
People living in poverty are believed to engage in disproportionate amounts of _____ crimes, such as rape and assault, as a result of their rage, anger, and frustration against society.
The UCR contains data on Part I (index) and Part II (non-index) crimes, although Part II crimes include Part I crimes. Which of the following is not a Part I offense?
The NCVS annually samples more than 42,000 _________ and 78,000 individuals age 12 or older in order to estimate crime victimization.
Franklin Zimring and Gordon Hawkins believe the _____ is the single most significant factor separating the crime problem in the United States from that of the rest of the developed world.
proliferation of handguns
According to the 2008 Monitoring the Future survey
the crime problem is greater than the UCR and NCVS indicate.
Some criminologists believe that the key to desistance and aging out is linked to human biology. What biological process accounts for desistance and aging out?
the level of hormone activity in the brain
UCR data associate social class with crime, indicating higher crime rates in inner-city, high-poverty areas. An alternative explanation for the association between social class and crime is ____, not actual criminal behavior patterns
law enforcement practices
Discovery of the chronic offender has forced criminologists to consider _____ in their explanations of crime.
Persistance and desistance
_____ suggests that as the African-American population increases, so does the amount of social control directed at them. This type of racism could account for the higher rates of minority crime in UCR data
Racial threat theory
Regardless of economic and marital status, which factor has the greatest influence on crime rates and trends?
Most criminologists believe that homicide data are the most accurate and valid UCR statistics. What do data indicate about homicide rates?
Between 1991 and 2008, homicide rates dropped 40%.
According to UCR data, what is known about today's property crime rate?
The property crime rate has dropped more than 10% in the past decade.
If the cost of the justice system, legal costs, and treatment costs are included, the total annual monetary loss due to crime is ___ or about ____ per U.S. citizen.
$450 billion - $1800
The most controversial element of the victims' rights movement is the
development of offender registration laws.
Why are schools the locale of a great deal of victimization?
Because schools are populated by teenage males.
The National Crime Victimization Survey is considered superior to the Uniform Crime Report because:
It provides are more accurate picture of the extent of crime in America
Some victims, especially ______ develop a persistent and paralyzing fear that they will be re-victimized.
What discovery prompted the scientific study of victims?
the discovery that victims play an important role in the crime process
The elderly are most often victims of a narrow band of crimes that includes
Victims of crime, especially childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crime themselves. This abuse-crime phenomenon is termed
the cycle of violence.
Victim risk diminishes rapidly after age
Tom has been repeatedly victimized while wearing the home team's football jersey while sitting on the visiting team's side of the football field. What aspect of repeat victimization accounts for Tom's troubles?
Counselors who help victims to understand the operations of the criminal justice system, who guide victims through the justice process, and who may provide transportation to and from court are called
Mediated face-to-face encounters between victims and their attackers that are designed to produce restitution agreements are called
victim-offender reconciliation programs
Which victimization theory claims that victims may initiate, either actively or passively, the confrontation that leads to their victimization?
victim precipitation theory
Being abused or neglected as a child __________ the odds of being arrested, both as a juvenile and as an adult.
Referencing the social ecology of victimization, in general, where is a violent crime more likely to take place?
in a park
_____ programs assist victims who feel isolated and vulnerable and who are in need of immediate or emergency services.
According to Cohen and Felson, why did crime rates increase between 1960 and 1980?
Because guardians decreased as a result of increased female participation in the workforce.
The long-term stress associated with crime victimization resulting in depression, anxiety, flashbacks, and recurring nightmares is called
post-traumatic stress disorder.
People living in rural areas have a victimization rate almost __________ than that of city dwellers.
Victim compensation is financial aid awarded to victims to repay them for lossand injury. Who ordinarily pays compensation?
What category of victim precipitation occurs when the victim exhibits some personal characteristic that unknowingly either threatens or encourages the attacker?
According to deviant place theory, the greater their exposure to dangerous places, the more likely people will become victims of crime and violence. Which factor does not characterize a deviant/dangerous place?
a neighborhood with educational and residential properties
The view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of capable guardians, and the presences of motivated offenders is called
routine activities theory.
In her study of rape survivors, Courtney Aherns found that the treatment survivors receive from legal, medical, and mental health services is so destructive that victims cannot help feeling
Gender affects victimization risk. Which of the following is a significant gender difference?
Women are more likely to be victimized by someone they know.
At the end of the 19th century, the popularity of the classical approach began to decline as _____ criminologists focused their attentions on internal and external factors - such as poverty, IQ, and education - rather than personal choice and decision making.
Rational choice theory has roots in the __________ school of criminology developed by the Italian social thinker, Cesare Beccaria.
Research on the immediate impact of well-publicized executions
failed to find evidence that an execution produces an immediate decline in the murder rate.
A method of crime prevention that seeks to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in specific settings is referred to as
situational crime prevention
Sociologist Jack Katz argues that there are situational inducements to criminality that directly precede the commission of crime and draw offenders into law violations. Katz termed these inducements the
seductions of crime.
The concept of situational crime prevention suggests that desperate people may contemplate crime, but only the truly ____ will attack a well-defended, inaccessible target and risk strict punishment.
According to the rational choice approach, the decision to commit crime is structured by
where the crime occurs and the characteristics of the target.
Situational crime prevention tactics generally fall into one of four categories. Which of the following is not one of those categories?
increasing the use of probation for committing crime
The "high" or the excitement/exhilaration of successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations is referred to as
Which statement reflects structuring criminality based on economic need?
Offenders commit crime because they may know people who have made "big scores"
"Awareness space" indicates that which crime is rational?
Specific deterrence suggests that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that known criminals will never repeat their criminal acts. What do we know about harsh (powerful) sanctions and deterrence?
All these things are known about harsh sanctions.
What is known about police and certainty of punishment?
The manner in which police approach their tasks may have more deterrence power than simply adding more police.
The rationale for using "three strikes" sentencing policies relies on
general deterrence and incapacitation
Closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance cameras and improved street lighting are mechanical forms of
According to Nobel Prize-winning economist Gary Becker, criminals engage in a(n) __________ of crime.
That thieves select German cars indicates that auto theft is rational because
German cars usually have high-quality audio equipment.
Crime is ________ because criminals will react selectively to the characteristics of an individual criminal act.
Which of the following is a reason why some critics say it is premature to embrace three strikes policies?
Most three-time losers are on the verge of aging out of crime anyway.
Jacob's and Wright's research on robbers indicates that target selection can be a rational choice made to ____ rather than to generate capital.
send a message
Economist Steven Levitt concludes that each person put behind prison bars results in a decrease of ___ serious crimes per year.
Why is drug dealing considered a rational crime?
Because drug dealers approach their "profession" in a businesslike fashion.
Which aspect of deterrence theory do theorists believe to have the greatest effect on deterring crime?
certainty of punishment
When video cameras set up in a mall to reduce shoplifting also reduce property damage due to vandalism, this situational crime prevention benefit is termed
Which of the following circumstances would prompt an offender to decide to forgo crime?
The offender would stand a good chance of being caught and punished.
Evidence exists that indicates abnormally low levels of brain chemical compounds called __________ are associated with violent behavior.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) developed ________ psychology that has remained a prominent segment of psychological theory ever since.
According to ___________, for a variety of genetic and environmental reasons, people's brains function differently in response to environmental stimuli.
Biological explanations of crime reemerged in the early _______ with the publication of Sociobiology by Edmond O. Wilson.
Biosocial research has found that abnormal levels of male sex hormones, known as __________, do in fact produce aggressive behavior.
Genetic theory holds that criminality-producing traits are
According to the psychoanalytic perspective, the __________ develops as a result of incorporating within the personality the moral standards and values of parents, community, and significant others.
Many ADHD children also suffer from ____and continually engage in aggressive and antisocial behavior early in childhood.
What is known about mental disorders and crime?
It is possible that the link between mental illness and crime is spurious and caused by some other factor.
Which perspective bests supports the fact that human history has been marked by war, violence and aggression?
Which of the following is NOT considered to contribute to a healthy diet and, thus, good mental health and well-adjusted behavior patterns?
heavy metals such as lead and mercury
Brain structure, brain damage, and brain chemicals are the causes of behavior in the __________ perspective.
Locations with the highest concentrations of lead also report the highest levels of
__________ reflects the view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits.
What research finding counters criminologists who claim that only low-IQ criminals get caught?
There is little difference in the IQ scores of self-reported and official criminals.
A significant criticism of biosocial theory has been
IT has not been subjected to sufficiently vigorous empirical testing
__________ was the forerunner of modern learning theorists who believed that people learn from one another through imitation.
Diet, hormones, and contaminants are the causes of behavior in the ________ perspective.
Socio-biologists view all EXCEPT which one of the following factors as being mutually interdependent?
In adoption studies, which of the following strongly predicted a child's criminal behavior?
a criminal biological father
Brain scanning techniques using electronic images suggest which of the following statements is true?
Both violent criminals and substance abusers have impairment in the pre-frontal lobe.
Social learning theory holds that
people learn to be aggressive through their life experiences.
__________ is the branch of behavior theory most relevant to criminology.
Social learning theory
What do we know about psychopaths and crime?
Psychopaths tend to continue their criminal careers long after other offenders age out of crime.
________ is a psychological perspective that focuses on mental processes - how people perceive and mentally represent the world around them.
Failure to complete high school greatly impacts one's social and economic opportunities. What percent of inner-city, black males do not complete high school?
According to institutional anomie theorists, the _________ is both a goal and process to accumulate goods and wealth.
Cultural deviance theory combines elements of _____ and social disorganization theories.
Social strata are created by the unequal distribution of wealth. While the upper-class is exceptionally well-to-do, ______ people live in poverty in America.
__________ reflects the view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual's emotional traits and responses to criminality.
General strain theory
General strain theory is not purely a structural theory because it focuses on how _____ influence behavior.
Cohen's theory of delinquent subcultures focuses on social conditions that prevent lower-class youths from achieving success legitimately. Cohen labels this form of culture conflict
When members of the lower-class are unable to achieve symbols of success via conventional means they feel anger, frustration, and resentment. These feelings are collectively referred to as
Walter Miller identified the unique conduct norms that define the lower-class culture and that often clash with conventional values. Which of the following is not one of those norms?
Which of Merton's social adaptations is most closely associated with criminal behavior?
According to social structure theory, the root cause of crime can be directly traced to
socioeconomic disadvantages that have become embedded in American society.
Shaw and McKay explained crime and delinquency within the context of
the changing urban environment and ecological development of the city.
What two elements of culture interact to produce anomie and/or anomic conditions?
culturally defined goals and socially approved means for obtaining them
Why are personal relationships, including establishing communication and common goals, strained in socially disorganized neighborhoods?
Because residents are constantly moving in and out of the neighborhood.
________ are segments of the population whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable belongings, and who share attitudes, values and norms.
Agnew suggests that criminality is the direct result of __________ - the anger, frustration and adverse emotions associated with destructive social relationships.
negative affective states
Strain theory holds that crime is a function of
conflict between people's goals and means.
What is the result of ineffective community social control efforts?
Crime rates increase.
As working and middle-class families flee inner-city poverty areas, the most disadvantaged population is consolidated in urban ghettos. This phenomenon results in a poverty
Social ecology school criminologists associate crime rates and the need for police services to
Cohesive communities with high levels of social control and social integration and where people develop interpersonal ties are also likely to develop
Oscar Lewis argues that the crushing lifestyle of lower-class areas produces ________ that is passed on from one generation to the next.
a culture of poverty
Subcultural values are handed down from one generation to the next in a process called
According to the author, the most important of Shaw and McKay's findings was that
crime rates correspond to neighborhood structure.
Judith and Peter Blau developed the concept of __________, the idea that anger and mistrust result from perceptions of inequality that lead lower-class people to feel deprived and embittered in comparison with those more affluent.
Social process theories share one basic concept. Which is it?
All people, regardless of their race, class, or gender, have the potential to become delinquents or criminals.
Social control theory suggests that
crime occurs when the forces that bind people to society are weakened or broken.
Social reaction theory suggests that
people become criminals when significant members of society label them as such.
_________ refers to a style of parenting with parents who are supportive and who effectively control their children in a non-coercive way.
Adolescents who do not receive affection from their parents during childhood are
more likely to use illicit drugs and be more aggressive as they mature.
Children who fail in school offend more frequently than those who graduate. According to research on national dropout rates, which of the following group sets has "little more than a fifty-fifty chance" of graduating high school?
Hispanic Americans and African Americans
According to the author, which of the following is accurate regarding why troubled kids choose delinquent peers?
Troubled kids do so out of necessity rather than desire.
When examining the relationship between delinquent peers and fear of punishment, ____ delinquent peers may outweigh the fear of punishment.
Religion and belief impact criminal behavior. Even children in high crime areas are better able to resist drug use if they
attend religious services.
Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory states that
criminal behavior is learned like any other behavior.
Which of the following research findings supports the core principles of differential association theory?
Crime appears to be intergenerational.
The process of _____ refers to moving in and out of delinquency or shifting between conventional and deviant values.
Neutralization theory points out that
even the most committed criminals and delinquents are not involved in criminality all the time.
Criminals sometimes neutralize wrongdoings by maintaining that the crime victim "had it coming." This is an example of which technique of neutralization?
denial of the victim
Criminals sometimes neutralize wrongdoings by "appealing to higher loyalties." Which of the following would be an example of that technique?
Attacking someone who is arguing with a friend.
Do criminals really neutralize? What does Topalli's research on street criminals indicate?
Street criminals do not experience guilt that requires neutralization.
Pioneering social control theorist, Walter Reckless argued that a _______ insulates a youth from the pressures of crimogenic influences in the environment.
Travis Hirschi tested the principal hypotheses of social control theory. While evidence was strong and supportive, what is the most controversial aspect of Hirschi's conclusions?
Any form of social attachment is beneficial, even to deviant peers and parents.
Which of the following issues has been raised regarding the validity of social control theory?
Delinquency may lead to weakened social bonds, not vice versa.
In its purest form, __________ theory argues that even crimes such as murder, rape, and assault are only bad or evil because people label them as such.
According to Lemert, __________ involves norm violations or crimes that have little influence on the actor and, therefore, can be quickly forgotten.
The boyhood friend of a convicted murderer is interviewed by the media and reports that the offender was withdrawn, suspicious, and negativistic as a youth. This is an example of
__________ is a process whereby secondary deviance pushes offenders out of the mainstream of society and offenders begin their escalating cycle of deviance.
A competency hearing in which a person is declared "mentally ill," or a trial where someone in found to be a "rapist" are forms of __________ according to Harold Garfinkle.
successful degradation ceremonies
The process of becoming stigmatized by crime labels is interactive. Labeling theorists blame the establishment of criminal careers on
crime control agencies.
Which of the following is true regarding restorative justice programs?
Restoration programs have been part of peacekeeping in Asian, Native American and Native Canadian communities for centuries.
John Hagan's critical feminist model uses gender differences to explain the onset of criminality. According to Hagan's power-control theory, what two factors account for female crime and delinquency?
class position and family functions
Instrumental theorists consider it essential to __________ law and justice - that is, to unmask its true purpose.
A number of restorative justice experts, including Gordon Bazemore, have suggested that restorative justice should be organized around the principle of
Globalization is of particular concern for critical theorists. What concept inherent in globalization do critical theorists find problematic?
The social climate of the ____ gave birth to critical criminology.
Peacemaking criminologists view the efforts of the state to punish and control crime as
encouraging crime rather than discouraging it.
What is the key difference between instrumental theorists and structural theorists?
Structural theorists focus on anyone who threatens the capitalist system.
When a government or political authority makes use of death squads to kill political opponents, dissenters, or other undesirables, what type of crime has been committed?
The publication of Taylor, Walton, and Young's __________ in 1973 gave a powerful boost to the conflict view and created a tradition for critical criminologists to question the role criminology plays in supporting the status quo and aiding the oppression of the poor and powerless.
The New Criminology
While mainstream criminologists criticize critical criminologists, what do critical criminologists accuse mainstream criminologists of doing?
Research is designed to unmask weak, powerless members of society so they can be better dealt with by the legal system
What type of research methodology is a critical criminologist most likely to employ?
Examine historical trends and patterns
____ describes the anti-social behaviors that arise from efforts to maintain governmental power or to uphold the race, class, and gender advantages of those who support the government.
State (organized) crime
Supranational criminology is a specialization of critical theory that focuses on which type of crimes?
According to power-control theory, which type of family produces daughters whose law-violating behavior mirrors that of their brothers?
Girls growing up in ______ are socialized to fear legal sanctions more than males; consequently, boys in these families exhibit more delinquent behavior than their sisters.
According to this type of critical theory, the poor may or may not commit more crimes than the rich, but the poor are certainly arrested and punished more often.
According to conflict theorists, societal conflict promotes crime by
creating a social atmosphere in which the law is a mechanism for controlling have-not members of society.
Critical theorists question the altruism of multi-national corporations and, therefore, take a very skeptical view of
According to critical theorists, crime is a
political concept designed to protect the power and position of the upper classes.
According to Messerschmidt's views in Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Crime what factor explains why females in society commit fewer crimes than males?
Some government experts use the "ticking Bomb scenario," to justify which type of state crime?
Some Native American communities use a peacemaking ceremony called __________ whereby groups of tribal elders, victims and community members meet with offenders in order to determine the best resolution for those accused of breaking the law.
a sentencing circle
John Lea and Jock Young, leaders of the leftist realism movement, contend that
the poor are doubly abused, first by the capitalist system and then by members of their own class.
Profits produced by the laboring classes are accrued by business owners who use these profits for reinvestment or to enrich themselves. This key crime-producing effort of modern corporate capitalism is termed
According to latent trait theory, when does a latent trait appear?
at birth or soon after
Life course theories integrate personal, social, socialization, situational and cognitive factors to explain human behavior. Personality and intelligence are __________ factors that can explain the onset and continuation of criminality.
Which of the following statements is inaccurate in terms of the empirical research supporting Laub and Sampson's age-graded theory?
Criminal career trajectories are impossible to reverse, even if life conditions improve.
According to the general theory of crime, being adventuresome, physical, and self-centered are all signs that a person possess
Which empirical evidence supports the general theory of crime?
Low self-control is significantly related to antisocial behavior and the association can be seen regardless of culture or national setting.
Latent trait theorists believe human development is controlled by a master trait present at birth or soon after that results in
an increased propensity to commit crime.
Which is an inaccurate statement about problem behaviors and problem behavior syndrome?
Problem behavior syndrome portrays crime as the product of other social problems.
Which of the following statements regarding gender differences and the general theory of crime is accurate?
There is little evidence that males are more impulsive than females.
Aside from identifying several specific pathways to crime, what else did Lober discover about criminal pathways?
Some people enter two and even three pathways simultaneously.
In their general theory of crime, Gottfredson and Hirschi consider the criminal offender and the criminal act as _______concepts.
Sampson and Laub's research indicates that building __________ and strong social bonds reduces the likelihood of long-term deviance.
Using data from a longitudinal study of Pittsburgh youth, Loeber identified distinct pathways to crime. Which pathway begins at an early age with stubborn behavior?
the authority conflict pathway
Although criminal offenders are people predisposed to crime, they are not robots who commit crime without restraint. According to the general theory of crime, change in the frequency of criminal activity is a function of
change in criminal opportunity.
Because it assumes that human character is selfish, self-serving and hedonistic, the general theory of crime is criticized for
misreading human nature.
Laub and Sampson identify life events that enable adult offenders to desist from crime. Accordingly, they identify transitions as short-term events embedded in
Developmental theories attempt to provide a natural history of criminal careers by encompassing
its onset, continuation, and termination.
According to Wilson and Herrnstein's crime and human nature view, a criminal incident occurs when an individual chooses criminal over conventional behavior. What factor influences that choice?
a latent trait
Critics of the GTC argue that white-collar criminals and organized crime bosses
seem more calculating than impulsive.
One of the key principles of life course theory is that
the seeds of a criminal career are planted early in life.
Bacon and Paternoster identified this pathway to crime characterized by staying out of trouble during adolescence, until late in one's teenage years, then becoming violent chronic offenders.
the late bloomer pathway
According to life course theories, criminal opportunity, effective guardianship, and apprehension risk are __________ factors that can explain the onset, continuance, and desistance from crime.
Because they combine personal, social, socialization, cognitive, and situational factors, life course theories are described as
Gottfredson and Hirschi claim that the principles of self-control theory
can explain all varieties of criminal behavior.
Public policy programs based on developmental theory
feature multi-systemic treatments designed for at-risk youths.
Why is early onset an important factor in crime?
Because early onset of antisocial behavior predicts later and more serious criminality.
According to the structural perspective, crime rates are a function of _____ forces such as neighborhood conditions, cultural factors, and norm conflict
The American legal system is a direct descendent of
the British common law
Individuals interact with various people, organizations, institutions and social norms as they mature and develop. This process is referred to as
Male in se crimes such as murder and rape reflect which view of crime?
the consensus view of crime
Criminologists interested in computing criminal statistics focus on creating ____ and ____ measurements of criminal behavior
Which view of crime sees society as a collection of diverse groups who are in a constant and continuing struggle to gain political power in order to advance their economic or social situation?
the conflict view of crime
While criminologists may adhere to the consensus, conflict, or interactionist view of crime, it is the ______ that defines crimes and their punishments.
Which of the following is not a legitimate social goal of the criminal law?
Which of the following situations reflects an act of deviance as opposed to a crime?
a passerby who observes a person drowning and does not offer aid
The writings of Karl Marx have had a great impact on _________ , which faults the economic system for producing the conditions that lead to high crime rates.
According to the biological/psychological perspective, which type of forces account for crime?
Gathering valid crime data, devising new research methods, and measuring crime patterns and trends fall under the ______ subarea of the criminological enterprise.
A deviant act becomes a crime when it is deemed socially harmful or dangerous
and is defined, prohibited, and punished under criminal law.
"Let the punishment fit the crime" refers to which criminological school of thought?
Which concept of crime implies that crimes are behaviors that all members of society consider to be repugnant, be they rich and powerful or poor and powerless?
the consensus view of crime
Marvin Wolfgang's 1958 study, Patterns in Criminal Homicide is an example of which subarea of the criminological enterprise?
understanding and describing criminal behavior
Which of the following offenses would be classified as a felony?
The ______ was a group of urban sociologists who examined how neighborhood conditions, such as poverty levels, influenced crime rates. Their sociological vision transformed into social structure theory.
Because criminologists are influenced by many disciplines (e.g., sociology, psychology, political science, natural sciences), the field of criminology is considered
Under common law, if a royal judge successfully applied a ruling in a number of different cases and published that ruling in order that other judges could apply the ruling in their subsequent decisions, the ruling would become
Caesar Beccaria, in the 1700s, was one of the first scholars to develop a systematic understanding of why people commit crime. Beccaria believed in the concept of _______, the idea that people want to achieve pleasure and avoid pain.
The academic discipline of criminology uses scientific methods to study the__________ of criminal behavior.
nature, extent, cause, and control
Which of the following situations raises an ethical issue for criminologists?
studying only poor, minority subjects while ignoring white-collar criminals
Which of the following offenses would be classified as a misdemeanor?
The "father of criminology" and the man who referred to offenders as "born criminals" was
Personal traits can account for violent behavior. Psychologist Dorothy Ottnow Lewis found that murderous youths often suffer signs of ___________
Ineffective families have been linked to persistent violent offending. Which is not a factor characteristic of an ineffective family?
Sigmund Freud believed that human aggression and violence are produced by instinctual drives. ____ is the death instinct that is sometimes expressed externally as violence or internally as suicide and alcoholism.
Children exposed to violence at home, at school, or in the environment may adopt violent methods themselves. Which children are most likely to engage in violent behavior?
children exposed to violence in the home and who live in a neighborhood with high violence rates
The Uniform Crime Report indicates that __________ of all murders and about two-fifths of all robberies involve firearms.
In their study of homicide, Kubrin and Weitzer found that when police and other agencies of formal social control are seen as ___________ some people are willing to take the law into their own hands and commit what the researchers called a "cultural retaliatory homicide."
weak and devalued
The common law definition of rape derives from the Latin word rapere meaning ______ and is defined as "the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will."
to take by force
According to Groth, every rape encounter contains at least one of three elements: anger, power, or
Unlike any other crime, in a rape case it is essential to prove that the attack was forced and that no question of ____ exists.
When Diane Whipple died after being attacked by two large dogs in the hallway of her apartment building, one of the dogs' owners was convicted of manslaughter based on the legal principle of
Research indicates a variety of facts about murder. Which of the following murder facts is inaccurate?
Over the last decade, the number of stranger murders has decreased.
One type of interpersonal violence is child abuse. Which age group suffers the highest rate of child abuse victimization?
children in the age group of birth to one year old
Women are often victimized by their intimate partners, whether in married or dating relationships. How many high school girls are estimated to experience sexual or physical violence from a boyfriend?
one in five
A number of research studies have been focused on armed robbers. What do these studies indicate?
Robbers are rational decision makers who look for easy prey.
In 2007, the FBI recorded 7,700 hate crime incidents that involved 9,500 victims. Most of these hate crime incidents were motivated by
Frederick Lawrence argues that criminals motivated by bias deserve to be punished more severely than those who commit identical crimes for other motives. Why is this so?
Bias crimes should be punished more severely for all these reasons.
Workplace violence is the third leading cause of occupational injury or death. Who is the typical offender in incidents of workplace violence?
a middle-aged white male facing termination
____ are typically located in rural areas and attack military, police, and government targets in an effort to unseat or replace the existing government.
This term began to be used during the Iraq war and described the forces opposed to American involvement. Members are typically organized into covert groups who engage in organized campaigns of extreme violence.
Which type of terrorism uses violence to frighten those in power and their supporters in order to replace the existing government with a regime that holds acceptable political or religious views?
_____ and the use of government troops to destroy political opposition parties are often associated with Latin American political terrorism.
Hamas and Hezbollah are examples of ____ terrorist groups - terrorists that promote the interests of a minority, ethnic, or religious group that believes it has been persecuted under majority rule and wishes to carve out its own independent homeland.
One view of terrorist motivation is that terrorists are emotionally disturbed individuals who act out their psychosis within the confines of violent groups. What did mental health expert Randy Borum conclude about this view?
Mental illness is not a critical factor in explaining terrorist behavior.
According to the alienation view of terrorist motivation, terrorists are relatively "ordinary" people who believe that a suicide mission will
cleanse them of the corruption of the modern world.
In response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Congress passed the USA Patriot Act, creating a ________ who was charged with coordinating data from the nation's primary intelligence-gathering agencies.
Director of National Intelligence
Embezzlement occurs when someone who is trusted with property fraudulently converts it. What do we know about embezzlement?
Embezzlement goes back to ancient Greece.
Criminologists suspect that, of the millions of property and theft-related crimes that occur each year, most are committed by
Most states have changed the legal requirements for burglary, removing the element of "forced entry." What is entry via deceit legally considered?
Sometimes adolescents are coerced into shoplifting by older peers. This type of shoplifter is termed a
Cargo thieves are professionals who work in highly organized groups and employ specialists, such as ____, who physically move the goods and work with drivers to transport stolen merchandise from docks.
Female and male burglars show similar offending patterns but specific gender differences do exist. Which is one of those differences?
Female burglars are more likely to work with a partner.
To promote the arrest of amateur and professional shoplifters, a number of states have passed _____ laws that are designed to protect retailers and their employees from lawsuits stemming from improper or false arrests of suspected shoplifters.
Fifteenth and sixteenth century foreign mercenary troops looted and pillaged the English and French country sides because they felt such theft was
a rightful part of their pay.
The "swoop and squat," the drive down, the sideswipe, and the t-bone are forms of what type of crime?
third party fraud
______ thieves are opportunistic amateurs who steal because of situational inducements.
______ criminals often deny their criminality. These offenders are most likely to respond to the general deterrent effect of the law.
Why have shoplifting incidents increased dramatically in the past twenty years?
Because popular retailers rely on highly visible merchandise displays to attract purchasers.
During the eighteenth century _______ moved freely in sparsely populated areas and transported stolen goods, such as gems, gold, and spices, without paying tax or duty.
Why do most state jurisdictions punish burglary as a felony?
Because the potential for harm to the occupants is so significant.
Neal Shover studied the careers of professional burglars finding key requirements of "the good burglar." Which is not one of those key requirements?
cultivating a ring of bail bond agents
A few professionals make a substantial living by passing bad checks. Lemert referred to these persons as
A new form of professional auto theft is called _____ and involves stealing VIN plates from a luxury auto on a dealer lot and placing the stolen VIN plate on an identical luxury vehicle stolen from a mall or parking lot.
The FBI's Uniform Crime Report recorded 6.5 million acts of larceny in 2008, which reflects
a continued steep decline over the past decade.
English judges created the concept of constructive possession to get around the element of
trespass in the taking.
False pretenses or fraud differs from traditional larceny because
the victims willingly give their possessions to the offender.
The definition of larceny evolved with the growth of manufacturing and the development of
the free enterprise system
Eliminating business competition by burning out rivals is a form of
arson for profit.
Repeat burglars may return to strike a previous target because
goods were observed that could not be removed the first time.
In the 18th century skilled thieves found in larger cities, such as London and Paris, congregated in _____ - public meeting places, often taverns that served asgang headquarters.
How a larceny is committed can affect its definition. It is automatically considered grand larceny to
steal a firearm from a home or car.
The evolution of organized crime has led to the _____, a FBI investigation tool that focuses on criminal enterprise and investigates the structure of criminal enterprise groups.
enterprise theory of investigation
In his research on fraud, Cressey found that the ________ view allowed professionals to excuse their criminal behavior since, "all people steal when they get in a tight spot."
Bernard Madoff has been referred to as the greatest ____ of all time.
______ organized crime groups are believed to be the main purveyors of credit card fraud in the United States.
Crimes of the marketplace are referred to as _____ crime and include white-collar crime, cyber crime and organized crime.
Your friend has listed an item for sale online that he does not possess. He "sells" the item and keeps the money. What cyber crime has your friend committed?
In 1907, sociologist E. A. Ross described the "criminaloid:" a business leader who, while enjoying immunity from the law, victimized an unsuspecting public. Today, Ross's criminaloid refers to one who commits
When someone illegally obtains software and then "cracks" or "rips" it and posts it on the Internet for others to use, the resulting pirated software is called
What percentage of websites offering drugs for sale require no prescription from a patient's physician?
White-collar crime, cyber crime, and organized crime are linked because they involve
twisting the legal rules of commercial enterprise for criminal purposes.
Pharmacists have been known to alter prescriptions or substitute low-cost generic drugs for more expensive name brands. This is an example of which category of white-collar crime?
While power in traditional bullying is the result of physical (stature) or social (competency or popularity) factors, power in cyber bullying stems from ____
One form of _____ involves "payola" - record companies paying radio stations to play songs without making listeners aware of the bribes.
A pyramid scheme is one type of ______ whereby people use their institutional or business position to trick others out of their money.
The _________ is the view that organized crime is a direct offshoot of a criminal society - the Mafia - that first originated in Italy and Sicily.
alien conspiracy theory
According to the _______view, some business organizations promote white-collar criminality in the same way that lower-class culture encourages the development of juvenile gangs and street crimes.
The IT revolution has revitalized the porn industry. What do we know about adult entertainment on the web?
All of these things are known about adult entertainment on the web.
Your friend committed a _________ when he flooded an internet site with emails and made the website "crash" because the company refused to pay him a bribe.
Cyber criminals who engage in cyber vandalism are often motivated by ___
What is the difference between a computer worm and a Trojan horse?
Computer worms self-replicate, Trojan horses do not.
__________ involves illegal activities of people and institutions whose acknowledged purpose is profit through legitimate business transactions.
Some identity theft thieves create emails that look legitimate but are designed to gain access to a victim's personal information. This is a/an _________ scheme.
"Ping-ponging, "gang visits," and "steering" are forms of which type of white-collar crime?
health care fraud
One important contemporary change in organized crime is
the interweaving of ethnic groups into the traditional structure.
What is the minimum dollar amount necessary before fraud exists in the crime of tax evasion?
There is no minimum dollar amount.
__________ refers to the rubbing against or touching of a non-consenting adult in a crowd.
Your neighbor obtains sexual pleasure from spying on strangers while they disrobe. This neighbor is a/an
Ethan Nedelmann argues that drugs should be legalized because
the use of mood-altering substances is customary in almost all human societies.
Which issue presents an obstacle to controlling drugs via source control strategies?
These are all issues that present obstacles to controlling drugs via source control strategies.
Problem behavior syndrome contends that
substance abuse is just one of many problem behaviors.
International trafficking in prostitution flourishes. Hundreds of thousands of children and women, primarily from _________, are abducted or lured by the promise of good jobs and, instead, end up in the sex trade in industrialized countries including the United States.
Southeast Asia and Eastern Europe
Attaining sexual pleasure through sexual activity with prepubescent children is referred to as
The __________ Amendment right to free speech makes legal control of pornography quite difficult.
Which of the following statements is accurate?
The line between behaviors that are immoral and those that are criminal are often blurred.
_________is a disturbing behavior whereby men travel overseas to places such as Thailand in order to engage in illicit sexual behavior with young girls who have been sold into prostitution.
Obscenity is derived from the Latin word caenum that means
Modern commercial sex appears to have its roots in ancient _____ where Solon established licensed brothels in 500 BC.
Tying drug use to factors such as racial prejudice, low self-esteem, poor socioeconomic status, and the high levels of mistrust, negativism, and defiance found in impoverished areas describes whish causal explanation of drug use?
What does research indicate about the effects of legalizing prostitution?
Legalization leads to massive expansion of the trade, both legal and illegal.
Border patrols are examples of ________ strategies aimed at stopping drug use.
The arrest rate for prostitution reveals that the gender ratio is __________ female to male.
The aristocrats of prostitution are _____ who charge customers thousands of dollars per night and who may net over $200,000 per year.
After World War I, prostitution became associated with ____, and the desire to protect young servicemen from harm helped to end all experiments with legalization in the United States.
Of all the commonly practiced paraphilias, which causes the general public the most concern?
According to legal scholar, Morris, Cohen, why should victimless crimes be criminally prohibited?
Because one of the functions of criminal law is to express the public's shared sense of morality.
According to the theory of social harm, immoral acts can be distinguished from crimes on the basis of the ____they cause.
__________ are behaviors outlawed because they are a threat to the general well-being of society and challenge accepted moral principles.
Public order crimes
Which of the following is a contention of opponents of pornography?
Pornography degrades both the people who are participants and the public who are sometimes forced to see it.
The movement to ban gay marriage in California that led to the passage of Proposition 8 is an example of a/an
Prostitution is illegal in all states except Nevada where licensed and highly regulated brothels can operate as business enterprises in
Prior to the 1960s, U.S. courts exercised little control over the operations of criminal justice agencies. This practice was referred to as the _____ doctrine.
__________ advocates see themselves as protectors of civil rights.
When the U.S. Supreme Court hands down a/an __________ the ruling influences the everyday operating procedures of police agencies, trial courts, and corrections institutions.
An arrest is legal when an officer believes there is _____ that a crime is or has been committed and that the suspect committed the crime, the officer deprives the suspect of freedom, and the suspect believes she or he is in the custody of the police officer and cannot voluntarily leave.
Within the structure of the court system, the prosecutor and the defense attorney are opponents in what is known as the __________ system.
The federal court system has three tiers. Which courts are the trial courts of the federal system?
U.S. district courts
_______ reflects the principle that all offenders who commit the same crime should receive the same sentence.
_________ model states that the overriding purpose of the justice system is to protect the public and deter crime.
The crime control model
Which legal disposition is the most common correctional treatment given to offenders?
Relatively few contacts between police and the public involve police use of physical force, but
there are racial and ethnic differences in the rate at which force is applied.
What does research indicate about the effectiveness of parole?
More than 60% of parolees return to prison within three years of their release.
Advocates of the _____ model feel police, courts, and correctional agencies should concentrate their efforts on diverting law violators out of the formal justice system, thereby helping violators to avoid the stigma of formal crime labels.
District attorneys, state attorneys general and the United States Attorney General are all
Crime control advocates lobby for the abolition of _________, which requires that illegally seized evidence be barred from criminal proceedings.
the exclusionary rule
The pattern of cooperation, between prosecution and defense, that leads to a quick and efficient flow of cases through the court system is referred to as
the courtroom work group.
The public relies on the criminal justice system to provide solutions to crime and to shape the direction of crime policy. Which of the following is NOT a specific function of the criminal justice system?
legislating criminal law
Most states employ a multi-tiered court structure. Which courts try felony offenses?
superior trial courts
Who are the most visible agents of the criminal justice process?
Community policing is a philosophy of policing that requires police officers to become agents of change by working with neighborhood residents to prevent crime. What is known about community policing?
Community policing has lowered neighborhood crime rates.
Because decision making and _____ mark each stage of the system, the criminal justice process serves as a _____ through which a great majority of cases are screened out before trial.
Which of the following orderings most accurately depicts the criminal justice process?
initial contact ® arrest ® adjudication ® disposition
While various philosophies of justice compete for dominance, which models currently capture the support of legislators and the general public?
the crime control and equal justice models
The __________ model embraces the notion that given the proper care and treatment, criminals can be changed into productive, law-abiding citizens.
The term "criminal justice system" became prominent around 1967, when the _____ launched a nationwide study of the nation's crime problem.
Law Enforcement Assistance Administration
Criminologist Joan Petersilia warns that increases in child abuse, family violence, homelessness, and community disorganization are unfortunate consequences of
the 500,000 inmates being released back into society.