A&P 4-6

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Quizzes 4, 5, 6

The four primary tissue types are

A. epithelial, cartilage, muscular, and brain
B. connective, epithelial, skin and blood
C. epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous
D. glands, bone, lungs, and kidney
E. bone, skin, blood, and muscle

C. epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous

The embryonic germ layer that is the
source of connective tissue and muscle is
A. mesoderm
B. endoderm
C. ectoderm
D. exoderm
E. neuroectoderm

A. mesoderm

Epithelial tissue is characterized by
A. tightly packed cells
B. absence of any basement membrane
C. extensive extracellular matrix.
D. a rich blood supply.
E. both tightly packed cells and a rich blood supply

A. tightly packed cells

Epithelial tissue is distinguished from
connective, muscular, or nervous tissue by its
A. extracellular matrix
B. contractility
C. ability to carry action potentials
D. ability to serve as insulation
E. basement membrane

E. basement membrane

Which of the following is a function of epithelial tissue?
A. conduction of action potentials
B. secretion and absorption of molecules
C. support of other tissue types
D. contraction
E. shock absorption

B. secretion and absorption of molecules

Which of the following characteristics is NOT consistent with simple squamous epithelial tissue?
A. little extracellular material
B. rest on a basement membrane
C. has good blood supply within it
D. the cells are thin and flat (not thick)
E. acts as a permeability barrier

C. has good blood supply within it

Which of the following cell organelles would be most important in secretory epithelial cells?
A. cilia
B. golgi apparatus
C. lysosomes
D. desmosomes
E. microtubules

B. golgi apparatus

Which of the following statements is false?
A. Secretory epithelial cells are usually cuboidal or columnar in shape.
B. The movement of materials through epithelium is enhanced by simple squamous epithelium.
C. Stratified epithelium is adapted for a protective role
D. Columnar epithelial cells promote diffusion
E. Cuboidal epithelium is found in areas where absorption occurs.

D. Columnar epithelial cells promote diffusion

If one of the functions of the capillaries is to supply body cells with oxygen and nutrients, you would expect the capillary walls to consist of
A. connective tissue
B. keratinized epithelium
C. stratified squamous epithelium
D. simple columnar epithelium
E. simple squamous epithelium

E. simple squamous epithelium

Epithelial tissue that can stretch or is subjected to stress would have many
A. desmosomes
B. gap junctions
C. tight junctions
D. basement junctions
E. intercalated discs

A. desmosomes

An example of a gap junction is
A. a desmosomes
B. an adhesion belt
C. a striation
D. an intercalated disk
E. goblet cell

D. an intercalated disk

What attaches epithelial cells to the basement membrane?
A. hemidesmosomes
B. adhesion belt
C. tight junction
D. gap junction
E. desmosomes

A. hemidesmosomes

Which of the following is classified as a holocrine gland?
A. sweat gland
B. salivary gland
C. sebaceous gland
D. mammary gland
E. exocrine part of pancreas

C. sebaceous gland

What type of gland discharges fragments of the gland's cells during secretion?
A. exocrine
B. endocrine
C. merocrine
D. apocrine
E. holocrine

D. apocrine

Which of the following is NOT a function of connective tissue?
A. transport
B. support
C. storage
D. contraction
E. insulation

D. contraction

A cell that forms fibrous connective tissue would be called a
A. fibroclast
B. fibrocyte
C. fibroblast
D. fibroid
E. fibromast

C. fibroblast

What type of cells phagocytize foreign or injured cells and play a major role in providing protection against infections?
A. mast cells
B. adipocytes
C. osteoclast
D. stem cells
E. macrophages

E. macrophages

What type of cells release chemicals in response to injury and play an important role in inflammation?
A. mast cells
B. adipocytes
C. osteoclast
D. stem cells
E. macrophages

A. mast cells

The three types of protein fibers found in connective tissue are
A. hyaluronic acid, collagen, and reticular fibers
B. proteoglycan, elastin, and reticular fibers
C. collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers
D. proteoglycan, elastin, and hyaluronic acid
E. chondronectic, osteonectin, fibronectin

C. collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers

Connective tissue in tendons is
A. dense regular collagenous tissue
B. dense regular elastic tissue
C. dense irregular collagenous tissue
D. dense irregular elastic tissue
E. dense regular collagenous tissue

A. dense regular collagenous tissue

What type of connective tissue is found in the external ears?
A. hyaline cartilage
B. fibrocartilage
C. elastic cartilage
D. dense irregular elastic tissue
E. dense regular collagenous tissue

C. elastic cartilage

What type of connective tissue forms most of the skeleton before it is replaced by bone?
A. hyaline cartilage
B. fibrocartilage
C. elastic cartilage
D. dense irregular elastic tissue
E. dense regular collagenous tissue

A. hyaline cartilage

Which of the following types of connective tissue is mismatched with its matrix?
A. areolar - loosely packed matrix of protein fibers
B. bone - mineralized matrix
C. cartilage - highly vascular matrix
D. blood - fluid matrix
E. bone - highly vascular

C. cartilage - highly vascular matrix

Support cells of the brain and spinal cord are called
A. mesoderm
B. neuroglia
C. membranes
D. dendrites
E. pseudostratified columnar epithelium

B. neuroglia

The type of membrane that protects internal organs from friction is a _________ membrane.
A. serous
B. synovial
C. mucous
D. partial
E. dry

A. serous

Which of the following functions is associated with the skin?
A. Fat production
B. Vitamin C production
C. Regulation of body pH
D. Protection against ultraviolet radiation of the sun
E. Vitamin A production

D. Protection against ultraviolet radiation of the sun

The dermis
A. Contains no blood vessels.
B. Functions as padding and insulation
C. Is divided into three distinct layers
D. Is responsible for most of the skin's structural strength
E. Does not contain connective tissue

D. Is responsible for most of the skin's structural strength

The sloughing off of older cells from the surface of the skin is called
A. Pollination
B. Keratinization
C. Melaninization
D. Germination
E. Desquamation

E. Desquamation

Which of the following statements concerning the epidermis is true?
A. The dermis is superficial to the epidermis
B. The epidermis contains numerous blood vessels
C. The most numerous cells in the epidermis are the melanocytes
D. The epidermis is nourished by blood vessels located in the dermis
E. The epidermis is very permeable to water-soluble molecules

D. The epidermis is nourished by blood vessels located in the dermis

Keratinization
A. Occurs in the dermis
B. Results in the formation of new epidermal cells
C. Produces a layer of cells that resist abrasion
D. Determines skin color
E. Does not affect permeability characteristics of the epidermis

C. Produces a layer of cells that resist abrasion

The epidermis
A. Is thicker than the dermis
B. Contains no blood vessels
C. Is composed of loose connective tissue
D. Is made up mostly of melanocytes.
#. Is composed of the reticular and papillary layers

B. Contains no blood vessels

Which cells of the epidermis is part of the immune system?
A. Keratinocytes
B. Melanocytes
C. Langerhans cells
D. Merkel cells
E. Fibroblasts

C. Langerhans cells

The layer of epidermis that undergoes mitosis and forms new epidermal cells is the
A. Stratum basale
B. Stratum granulosum
C. Stratum lucidum
D. Stratum corneum
E. Stratum dermum

A. Stratum basale

Which layer of the epidermis is found in only a few areas of the body?
A. Stratum basale
B. Stratum spinosum
C. Stratum granulosum
D. Stratum lucidum
E. Stratum corneum

D. Stratum lucidum

What protein is found in the nails, hair, and epidermis?
A. Melanin
B. Keratin
C. Carotene
D. Elastin
E. Collagen

B. Keratin

Which of the following represents the correct order of the layers of the epidermis? To the most superficial?
A. Stratum basale, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum spinosum, and stratum corneum
B. Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum
C. Stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum corneum, stratum basale, and stratum spinosum
D. Stratum spinosum, stratum basale, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum, and stratum granulosum E. Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale

B. Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum

This stratum contains many layers of dead squamous cells.
A. Stratum basale
B. Stratum spinosum
C. Stratum granulosum
D. Stratum lucidum
E. Stratum corneum

E. Stratum corneum

Skin color is the result of the
A. Quantity of melanin in the skin
B. Number of keratinocytes in the skin
C. Amount of fat in the hypodermis
D. Thickness of the stratum basale
E. Number of melanocytes in the skin

A. Quantity of melanin in the skin

The bluish tinge of skin due to a reduction of oxygen in the blood is called
A. Hemolysis
B. Desquamation
C. Cyanosis
D. Carotenosis
E. Albinism

C. Cyanosis

A victim of an automobile accident goes into shock, which results in decreased blood flow. The victim's skin will:
A. Become pale
B. Have a reddish hue
C. Develop a yellow tint
D. Become bright red
E. Not change color

A. Become pale

When comparing the dermis with the hypodermis, the dermis
A. Has more fat cells than the hypodermis
B. Is a more vascular tissue than the hypodermis
C. Is divided into two layers; the hypodermis is not
D. Contains melanocytes; the hypodermis does not
E. The hypodermis does not contain collagen

C. Is divided into two layers; the hypodermis is not

If you accidentally cut your arm and see connective tissue and fat, which layer(s) was/were cut?
A. Stratum corneum
B. Stratum basale
C. Dermis
D. Hypodermis
E. All of these layers

E. All of these layers

The dermis
A. Contains no blood vessels
B. Functions as padding and insulation
C. Is divided into three distinct layers
D. Is responsible for most of the skin's structural strength
E. Does not contain connective tissue

D. Is responsible for most of the skin's structural strength

Which of the following statements concerning the hypodermis is false?
A. Hypodermis is referred to as subcutaneous layer
B. Hypodermis is composed of dense connective tissue with collagen and elastin fibers
C. The main cell types of the hypodermis are fibroblasts, fat cells, and macrophages
D. The hypodermis attaches the skin to underlying bone and muscle
E. The hypodermis is a site of fat storage

B. Hypodermis is composed of dense connective tissue with collagen and elastin fibers

Delicate unpigmented hairs that cover the fetus in early development are called
A. Terminal hairs
B. Primary hairs
C. Lanugo hairs
D. Vellus hairs
E. Secondary hairs

C. Lanugo hairs

At birth the hairs of the scalp, eyelids, and eyebrows are replace by coarser pigmented hairs called:
A. Terminal hairs
B. Primary hairs
C. Lanugo hairs
D. Vellus hairs
E. Pubic hairs

A. Terminal hairs

The portion of a hair that protrudes above the surface of the skin is the
A. Hair bulb
B. Hair root
C. Hair shaft
D. Hair follicle
E. Dermal papilla

C. Hair shaft

An expanded knob at the base of the hair root is the
A. Shaft
B. Cuticle
C. Hair bulb
D. Medulla
E. Root

C. Hair bulb

Bob was completely bald on the top of his head by the time he was 35 years old. Bob noticed he produced abundant sweat on his head when he exercised. He also noticed that his scalp was no longer oily. Which of the following changes account for the observations?
1. He has fewer functional hair follicles now.
2. He has fewer functional sebaceous glands now
3. He has fewer merocrine sweat glands now
4. He has fewer apocrine sweat glands now
A. 1, 2, 3, 4
B. 1, 2, 3
C. 1, 2, 4
D. 1, 3, 4
E. 1, 2

E. 1, 2

Which of the following is NOT a function of bone?
A. Support
B. Movement
C. Immunity
D. Calcium storage
E. Blood cell formation

C. Immunity

The type of cartilage associated with bone function and development is
A. Elastic cartilage
B Fibrocartilage
C. Hyaline cartilage
D. Interstitial cartilage
E. Osteocartilage

C. Hyaline cartilage

Ligaments attach
A. Muscle to muscle
B. Bone to bone
C. Muscle to bone
D. Nerve to bone
E. Nerve to muscle

B. Bone to bone

A connective tissue sheath around cartilage is the
A. Endosteum
B. Perichondrium
C. Periosteum
D. Epiphyseal line
E. Ligament

B. Perichondrium

Which of the following matrix molecules in cartilage tends to trap large quantities of water?
A. Collagen
B. Proteoglycan
C. Hyaluronic acid
D. Elastin
E. Chondrocytes

B. Proteoglycan

The compression (weight-bearing) strength of bone matrix is due to the presence of
A. Elastin fibers
B. Collagenase
C. Hydroxyapatite crystals
D. Collagen fibers
E. Bone marrow

C. Hydroxyapatite crystals

In appositional growth of cartilage:
A. Chondroblasts within the tissue proliferate and add more matrix from the inside
B. New chondrocytes and new matrix are added on the outside of the tissue
C. Osteoblasts replace the chondroblasts
D. The tissue becomes vascularized in order to grow
E. The cartilage is replaced with another kind of connective tissue

B. New chondrocytes and new matrix are added on the outside of the tissue

The cell type that is responsible for maintaining bone once it has been formed is the
A. Osteoclast
B. Osteoblast
C. Chondrocyte
D. Osteocyte
E. Chondroblast

D. Osteocyte

Which type of bone cells are large cells that form from fusion of monocytes?
A. Osteochondral progenitor cell
B. Osteoblasts
C. Osteocytes
D. Osteoclasts

D. Osteoclasts

Which type of bone cells possesses extensive ER and ribosomes?
A. Osteochondral progenitor cell
B. Osteoblasts
C. Osteocytes
D. Osteoclasts

B. Osteoblasts

Which type of bone cells have processes that lie in canaliculi?
A. Osteochondral progenitor cell
B. Osteoblasts
C. Osteocytes
D. Osteoclasts

D. Osteocytes

Which of the following is associated with osteoclast resorption of bone?
A. Hydrogen ions form an acid environment in bone matrix
B. Osteoblasts form collagen and proteoglycans
C. The protein components of bone matrix are synthesized
D. Calcium is actively transported from blood to bone matrix
E. Blood calcium is decreased

A. Hydrogen ions form an acid environment in bone matrix

Spongy bone tissue
A. Is very dense
B. Contains concentric lamellae
C. Contains interconnecting plates called trabeculae
D. Has many spaces and lacks osteocytes
E. Is the primary component of compact bone

C. Contains interconnecting plates called trabeculae

Haversian systems or osteons
A. Are found in spongy bone tissue
B. Lack concentric lamellae
C. Are the basic units in compact bone tissue
D. Do not contain osteocytes
E. Are avascular

C. Are the basic units in compact bone tissue

A passageway connecting neighboring osteocytes in an osteon is a
A. Central canal
B. Lamella
C. Canaliculus
D. Lacuna
E. Osteocanal

C. Canaliculus

The covering of the outer surface of bone is the
A. Lamellae
B. Lacunae
C. Canaliculi
D. Periosteum
E. Trabeculae

D. Periosteum

The processes of intramembranous and endochondral ossification are similar in several respects. Which of the following statements applies to both intramembranous and endochondral ossification?
A. Both processes form woven bone
B. Both processes require a precursor of connective tissue membranes
C. In both processes, bone replaces cartilage
D. Both only form flat bones
E. Chondrocytes participate in both processes

A. Both processes form woven bone

An X-ray determines that Peter fractured the shaft of his humerus. The break is in the ________ of the bone.
A. Epiphysis
B. Epiphyseal line
C. Diaphysis
D. Growth plate
E. Articular surface

C. Diaphysis

What is the site of longitudinal growth in long bones?
A. Epiphysis
B. Sharpey's fibers
C. Epiphyseal plate
D. Medullary cavity
E. Endosteum

C. Epiphyseal plate

These collagen fibers help to connect ligaments and tendons to the periosteum of the bone.
A. Endosteal fibers
B. Sharpey fibers
C. Golgi fibers
D. Haversian fibers
E. Purkinje fibers

B. Sharpey fibers

What type of tissue covers the ends of long bones?
A. Articular cartilage
B. Periosteum
C. Elastic cartilage
D. Cancellous bone
E. Fibrocartilage

A. Articular cartilage

Arrange the following events in endochondral ossification in proper sequence:
1. Cartilage matrix is calcified and chondrocytes dies
2. Chondrocytes hypertrophy
3. Cartilage model is formed
4. Osteoblasts deposit bone on the surface of the calcified cartilage called the primary ossification center
5. Blood vessels from the periosteum invade calcified cartilage bringing in osteoblasts and osteoclasts
A. 3, 2, 1, 5, 4
B. 3, 2, 5, 4, 1
C. 3, 2, 5, 1, 4
D. 3, 5, 2, 4, 1
E. 1, 3, 4, 5, 2

A. 3, 2, 1, 5, 4
3. Cartilage model is formed
2. Chondrocytes hypertrophy
1. Cartilage matrix is calcified and chondrocytes dies
5. Blood vessels from the periosteum invade calcified cartilage bringing in osteoblasts and osteoclasts
4. Osteoblasts deposit bone on the surface of the calcified cartilage called the primary ossification center

Bone remodeling may occur
A. As bone grow
B. As bones adjust to stress
C. As fractures heal
D. Constantly during a person's lifetime
E. All of these choices are correct

E. All of these choices are correct

Which of the following statements regarding calcium homeostasis is true?
A. Parathyroid hormone inhibits osteoclast activity
B. When blood calcium levels are too low, osteoclast activity increases
C. Increased osteoblast activity increases blood calcium levels
D. Parathyroid hormone increases calcium loss from the kidney
E. Calcitonin elevates blood calcium levels

B. When blood calcium levels are too low, osteoclast activity increases

The proper sequence of events in bone repair is
A. Callus formation, hematoma formation, callus ossification, remodeling of bone
B. Remodeling of bone, callus ossification, hematoma formation, callus formation
C. Hematoma formation, callus formation, callus ossification, remodeling of bone
D. Callus ossification, callus formation, remodeling of bone, hematoma formation
E. Hematoma formation, callus ossification, callus formation, remodeling of bone

C. Hematoma formation, callus formation, callus ossification, remodeling of bone

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