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Planning, Analysis, Design, Implementation, Support

Overview System Development Cycle

system development

a set of activities used to build an information system

system

a set of components that interact to achieve a common goal

information system

a collection of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce quality information

phases

groups of system development activities

system development life cycle

SDLC

SDLC

system development activities

phases, users, standards

three general guideline principles for system development

representatives; proposed

System development should involve ______ from each department in which the ______ system will be used.

systems analyst

the liaison between users and IT professionals

request for system services

RFSS

RFSS

used to initiate a system development project

steering committee

decision-making body for the company

planning phase

begins when the steering committee receives a project request

review/approve project requests, prioritize project requests, allocate resources, project development team

four major activities of planning phase

project management

process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during system development

project scope, required activities, time estimates, cost estimates, order of activities, activities that can take place at the same time

To plan and schedule a project efficiently, the project leader identifies...

Gantt chart

a popular tool used to plan and schedule the time relationships among project activities

PERT chart

can be used for planning and scheduling time

program evaluation & review technique

PERT

analysis phase

consists of two major activities: conducting a preliminary feasibility investigation and performing detailed analysis

preliminary feasibility investigation

determines and defines the exact nature of the problem or improvement, interview the user who submitted the request, determine if request is feasible

detailed analysis

study how the current system works, determine the users' wants, needs and requirements, recommend a solution

logical design

Detailed analysis is also known as...

feasibility

a measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the organization

process modeling

an analysis and design technique that describes processes that transform inputs into outputs, helps to convey what the system presently does and what changes are being requested

data flow diagrams

another name for process modeling

modeling

general term for diagram techniques

schematics

general term for the output of various techniques

DFD

tool that graphically shows flow of data in system

data flow diagram

DFD

entity-relationship diagram

ERD

ERD

a tool that graphically shows the connections among entities in a system

entities

objects in the system that have data

project dictionary

contains all the documentation and deliverables of a project

structured English

a style of writing that describes the steps in a process

decision table

a table that lists a variety of conditions and the actions that correspond to each condition

decision tree

shows conditions and actions graphically

data dictionary

stores the data item's name, description, and other details about each data item

object modeling

combines the data with the processes that act on that data into a single unit

object

single unit where data and processes are combined during encapsulation

encapsulation

process of combining data with processes that act on that data into a single unit

unified modeling language

UML

UML

standard notation for object modeling and development

13

UML includes ___ different diagrams.

use case, class

two primary UML diagrams

use case diagram

graphically shows how actors (users) interact with the information system, diagrams are easy to understand

class diagram

graphically shows classes and subclasses in a system

one or more

In a class diagram, each class can have _____ subclasses.

inheritance

In class diagram, subclasses use ______ to inherit methods and attributes of higher levels.

system proposal, feasibility report

assesses the feasibility of each alternative solution

design phase

consists of two major activities: acquire hardware and software, develop all of the details of the new or modified information system

physical design

develop detailed design specifications

prototype

working model of a proposed system

inadequate; missing

Prototypes have _____ or _____ documentation.

embrace

Users tend to ______ the prototype as a final system.

computer-aided software engineering

CASE

CASE

designed to support one or more activities of system development

design inspection

a formal review of any system development individual deliverables

structured walkthrough

end of design phase, to be sure comprehensive design is correct

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