APES FINAL

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which island produces its energy from geothermal and hydroelectric sources

iceland

what island is part of a developing nation

madagascar

which island has high levels of UV radiation due to human activities

new Zealand

which island sits on top of a geologic hot spot far from any plate boundaries

hawaii

which island has the highest population density

cuba

ENSO

El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation, differences in Pacific Ocean surface temperatures when compared with the average value

what is used to decrease dependence on large inputs of broad-spectrum pesticides

IPM

The international treaty that restricts trade in products manufactured from endangered species

CITES

Results in a process by which the U.S. government will intervene in the event of massive environmental contamination

CERCLA

Results in fishery deterioration off the coast of South America

ENSO

Changes in inverse proportion to water temperature

dissolved oxygen

Sediment pollution will result in an immediate change in this measurement

turbidity

Higher for waters that flow through regions rich in calcium

hardness

Decreases in areas with highly active decomposers

dissolved oxygen

The type of radiation with the most energy

xray

The type of radiation that is trapped in the troposphere by greenhouse gases

infrared

The type of radiation with the least energy

microwaves

The type of radiation that formed the ozone layer

ultraviolet

It can be grown in crop rotation to restore soil nitrogen

alfalfa

Its use as biodiesel fuel has resulted in the destruction of large areas of tropical rainforest

palm

Sweeteners made from this crop have been widely blamed for obesity in the developed world

corn

Genetically modified strains have been created that reduce occurrences of childhood blindness

rice

Traditionally a food crop, it is now also considered as a source of fuel

corn

The largest watershed in North America drains into the sea in this state

Louisiana

Overfishing off the coast of this state has devastated cod fisheries

Massachusetts

Human activities along its coastline are responsible for increasing the damage by one of the most destructive hurricanes in history

Louisiana

The photochemical smog in its largest city is intensified by frequent inversion layers due to the mountains that surround it on three sides

california

Which of the following will likely lead to individuals underestimating the amount of risk associated with an activity

A large degree of control during the activity

Legislation has most effectively reduced which of the following air pollutants?

lead

Which of the following does NOT emit greenhouse gases?

The photosynthesis of oceanic phytoplankton

Which of the following invasive species was not intentionally introduced?

zebra mussel

A fig tree that provides shelter and fruit that is essential to the survival of numerous other species is an example of

keystone species

endemic species

an animal or plant species whose habitat is restricted to a particular area or space on the globe

why are plants bioengineered to kill their own seeds

to force farmers to buy new seeds every year

what is NOT an ecosystem service provided by forests?

road construction

what is 3ppm equivalent too

3,000 ppb

what of managing e-waste has the fewest negative environmental and social consequences?

E-waste collection by manufacturers required to take back their products for recycling

In general, far less than 100% of the energy from one trophic level is converted to energy at the next trophic level. This is best explained by

second law of thermodynamics

The major reason that many of the world's desalination plants are located in the Middle East is

the availability of the large amounts of fossil fuels required for desalination

Which of the following is the smallest reservoir of the global hydrologic cycle?

the atmosphere

Most photosynthesis in the open sea occurs in the

euphotic zone

littoral zone

close to the shore

limnetic zone

well-lit open surface waters

benthic zone

the ocean bottom

abyssal zone

the deepest region of the ocean

profundal zone

a deep water zone that is below the limits of effective light penetration

The U.S. law that requires developers to study the environmental impact of projects funded by the federal government is

NEPA

A forest ecosystem in which forest fires have been suppressed for many decades may benefit from which of the following?

Setting small contained surface fires

It is likely that in the next 10 to 30 years there will be an increase in cancer in northern Europe due to the events that occurred in

Chernobyl, Ukraine

While flying high above the ground far from any large cities, a migrating bird sees a series of large circular green patches on the ground. If the bird lands it will likely find itself in

agricultural land that is using center-pivot irrigation

Acid rain with a pH of 4.6 is more acidic than normal rainfall by a factor of

10

In addition to chlorine, which of the following elements is also linked to stratospheric ozone depletion?

bromine

The Ogallala Aquifer supplies water to much of

the High Plains area of the United States

what is the limiting agent for algae growth in seawater

nitrate

RCRA

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, prevented the unsafe disposal of hazardous wastes on land

Love Canal

A neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, which became the subject of national and international attention, controversy, and eventual environmental notoriety following the discovery of 21,000 tons of toxic waste buried beneath the neighborhood.

Peat

partially carbonized vegetable matter saturated with water

Sick building syndrome (SBS)

Situation in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building but no specific illness or cause can be identified

Methemoglobinemia

a condition induced by drugs and other substances, including prilocaine, benzocaine, and articaine, which can result in a life-threatening depletion of oxygen in the tissues

what would most effectively slow the loss of arable land

reducing urban development

what causes sick building syndrome

indoor air pollution

what is a commonly cultivated aquaculture crop

oyster

what is the world largest storage reservoir of freshwater

groundwater

what regulates the flow of nitrogen into and out of its largest reservoir

bacteria

mitigation

to act in such a way as to cause an offense to seem less serious

if the emissions that contribute to acid rain were completely eliminated, how long would it take for acid rain to stop falling

2-3 weeks

what allows polluters to buy and sell the right to pollute

cap and trade programs

what does the seasonal turnover of lakes in temperate climates do

oxygen to the bottom and nutrients to the surface of the lake

c horizon

weathered bedrock

b horizon

Subsoil

a horizon

topsoil

o horizon

top surface litter

species diversity can be quantified by using which the the following sets of data about an ecosystem

the number of species and the number of individuals of each species

how much time is required for 1 millicurie sample of I-131 to decay to an activity of 1 micro-curie

about 3 months

nitrogen fixation will take place in fields that are planted with

soybean

negative feedback loop

Causes a system to change in the opposite direction from which it is moving

tragedy of commons

the tendency for a common resource to be overused

marginal cost

the increase or decrease in costs as a result of one more or one less unit of output

positive feedback loop

Causes a system to change further in the same direction.

name 2 units of energy

killowatt-hour, kilocalorie

what is the correct sequence of the transformations is the nitrogen cycle

fixation, nitrification, assimilation, ammonification

what is a pollutant that is NOT associated with the use of modern sanitary landfills

mercury vapor

what uv ray is the ozone layer vital to protect life from

UV-B

what is the earliest stage of the succession of a lake

a meadow

why does the Antarctic ozone hole largely disappear a few months after its first appearance each year

the sun breaks up the air over Antarctica breaking up the polar clouds

NIMBY

Not in my backyard! The theory that people want development, but not near their home.

during the refining of crude oil what will boil away first

gasoline

what is a method for sequestering carbon dioxide

transport CO2 generated on land to offshore oil rigs where is can be pumped into the deep ocean

if oil sands become a cost affective resource its extraction may lead to significant environmental damage in what country

canada

why is DDT hazardous to animals

it is substituted into the shells of eggs which creates frail shells

fishing licenses are a legislative attempt to avoid which of the following

a tragedy of commons

which of the following is NOT an infectious disease that is transmitted through water

tuberculosis

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