The events of respiration are
ventilation, external and internal respiration, and cellular respiration.
The ultimate function of breathing is to
. deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of carbon dioxide, which maintains the pH of the internal environment
Arielle is an 8-year-old with cystic fibrosis. For 30 minutes each morning and evening, a parent holds her body in various positions and massages and kneads the areas over her lungs to dislodge the abundant, sticky mucus, which Arielle spits into a jar. She also takes medication - an enzyme - that thins the mucus. If she didn't take these measures, the mucus in her lungs would most likely increase her risk of
The intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the
force of air passing over the vocal cords
The mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity
warms incoming air, moistens incoming air, entraps dust, entraps other small particles
The pharynx functions as a ______, whereas the larynx functions as a ______.
common passageway for air and food; passageway for air only
is lined with a ciliated mucous membrane, includes 20 C-shaped cartilage rings, is a passageway for air, is also called the windpipe.
As the respiratory tube branches become finer
the epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous epithelium.
The right lung has ______ lobes; the left lung has ______ lobes
superior, middle, and inferior; superior and inferior
The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the
elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension
The volume of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the
The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by
a thin film of serous fluid
The first event in inspiration is
the diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract
"I'm going to hold my breath until I turn blue and stop breathing and die and it will be all your fault!" shrieked the 6-year-old at her father. The child was unable to carry out her threat because
increased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and decreased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptors
Baby Timothy suffers from apnea and is hooked up to a monitor to warn his parents when he stops breathing. Timothy's dad snores very loudly. Timothy's condition differs from his father's in that infant apnea is
a central problem of respiratory control
Emily is winded from running to her car from the supermarket. It is late at night and she thinks she is being followed. Which of the following receptors would not be involved in regulating her breathing rate?
The ventral part of the medulla oblongata near the origin of the vagus nerve has
Oxygen plays a minor role in control of normal respiration because
deoxygenated venous blood is 75% saturated
The chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are most sensitive to changes in blood concentration of
Carbon dioxide is sometimes added to the air that a patient breathes in order to
. increase the rate and depth of breathing
Hyperventilation is usually accompanied by a(n)
decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH
Max works out about an hour every day, using aerobic machines at a gym. During his moderate physical exercise, blood concentrations of
oxygen and carbon dioxide remain nearly unchanged
Increasing blood concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions have similar effects upon the respiratory areas due to
an increase in carbon dioxide, increasing hydrogen ions
. In bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the lungs of newborns become inflamed and scarred. Most infants recover, but some die. An experimental treatment cultures stem cells from a newborn's umbilical cord. The stem cells, in a lab dish, give rise to type II cells, which in turn give rise to more type I cells. In this treatment
the type II cells secrete surfactant and the type I cells form the respiratory membrane
Police stop Richard for driving erratically at 3 AM and give him a breathalyzer test, which he fails miserably because of
the thinness of his respiratory membranes
. The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin increases when
carbon dioxide concentration increases
A mother and two young children are found passed out in their apartment, where a space heater is on. Emergency medical technicians suspect carbon monoxide poisoning, so they give the patients
highly concentrated oxygen and some carbon dioxide
Changes in the respiratory system that accompany aging are
B. slowed swallowing reflex.
C. macrophages become less efficient at keeping bacteria out.
D. cilia become less active or vanish
Exposure to secondhand smoke can cause or increase risk of
heart disease, lung cancer, and low birth weight
Exposure to secondhand smoke increases risk of
damage to the smooth endothelial lining of blood vessels.
B. platelet activation
C. abnormal blood clotting.
D. decreased coronary artery blood flow.
Smokers are more susceptible to respiratory infections because
their respiratory passages lose cilia, which would otherwise remove bacteria
pressure in alveoli increases and their walls burst, coalescing them and decreasing the surface area for gas exchange
In October 2001 at the site of the World Trade Center in New York City, fires were still burning from the terrorist attacks that had brought down the buildings. The greatest danger to the respiratory system was
very small particles of debris
A disorder seen in people who work in factories that package buttered popcorn, caused by inhaling organic dust, is
extrinsic allergic alveolitis
Breathing rate increases during exercise due to
signals from the cerebral cortex to the respiratory areas when it also signals skeletal muscles to contract.
B. muscle stimulation of proprioceptors.
C. a joint reflex.
D. stimulation of the respiratory areas by decreasing blood concentration of oxygen and increasing blood concentration of carbon dioxide.
At high altitudes, when capillary pressure becomes too high,
fluid filters out of the blood and collects in the alveoli
The greatest amount of carbon dioxide transported in the blood is in the form of dissolved carbon dioxide
The cartilaginous structure at the base of the tongue that helps to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is the ______.
The layer of serous membrane that is firmly attached to the surface of a lung is called ______ ______.