Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders

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the medical model applied to abnormal behavior

Proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease

diagnosis

Involves distinguishing one illness from another

etiology

Refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness

prognosis

A forecast about the probably course of an illness

diagnosis

deviance, maladaptive behavior, personal distress

epidemiology

The study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders within a population

prevalence

Refers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a certain time period

generalized anxiety disorders

Marked by a chronic, high-level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific situation or threat

phobic disorder

Marked by a persistent and irrational fear or an object or situation that poses no real threat
(People only qualify if their fears seriously interfere with their everyday behavior)

panic disorder

Characterized by recurring attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly

agoraphobia

A fear of going out into public places

OCD

Persistent, uncontrollable occurrences of unwanted thoughts, and urges to engage in senseless rituals

OCD

four possible manifestations:
1. Obsessions and checking
2. Symmetry and order
3. Cleanliness and washing
4. hoarding

concordance rates

Indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder

evolved module for fear learning

(Martin Seligman)
Suggests that people are biologically prepared by evolutionary history to acquire some fears more easily than others
(Proven by how much faster people develop stronger phobias to ancient threats (spiders, snakes) than modern threats (electrical outlets, busy streets)

psychosomatic diseases

Involve genuine physical ailments caused in part by psychological factors, especially related to stress

somatoform disorders

Physical ailments which cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors

somatization disorders

(somatoform disorder)
Marked by a history of DIVERSE physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin

conversion disorders

(somatoform disorder)
Marked by a significant loss of physical function with no apparent organic cause, usually in a single organ system

hypochondriasis

(somatoform disorder)
Excessive obsession with health concerns and developing an illness
(tend to overreact to any sign of physical ailment)

dissociative disorders

Disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity

dissociative amnesia

Sudden loss of memory of important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting
(May occur for a single event or an extended period of time surrounding the event.)

dissociative fugue

People lose their memory of their entire lives, along with their sense of personal identity
(still remember everything unrelated to their identity, such as how to drive a car and walk etc.)

dissociative identity disorder

Involves the coexistence in one person of two or more personalities

dissociative identity disorder

multiple personality disorder

unipolar mood disorder

Experience emotional extremes at only one end of the mood scale (depression)

bipolar mood disorder

experience emotional extremes at both ends of the mood scale (depression and mania)

major depressive disorder

People show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure
(diagnosis depends on duration)

dysthymic disorder

consists of chronic depression that is not severe enough to qualify as a major depressive episode

mania

judgment impaired, self esteem extremely elevated, disruption of sleep patters

cyclothymic disorder

A diagnosis of chronic but relatively mild symptoms of bipolar disturbance

Seasonal Affective Disorder

A type of depression which follows a seasonal pattern
(related to melatonin production and circadian rhythms)

post-partum depression

Depression which specifically occurs after giving birth
(usually develops before 4 weeks after birth)

developed Model of Perfectionism

(Hewitt and Flitt)
1. Self-oriented perfectionism
2. other-oriented perfectionism
3. socially prescribed perfectionism

self-oriented perfectionism

high standards for oneself

other-oriented perfectionism

high standards for others

socially prescribed perfectionism

Tendency to perceive that others are setting high standards for you

Model of Personality Styles

(Beck)
1. sociotropy
2. autonomy

sociotropy

investment in interpersonal relations; over-concerned with avoiding problems and pleasing others

autonomy

orientation towards one's own independence or achievement

Model of Personality

(Blatt)
1. Introjective personality orientation
2. Anaclitic orientation

introjective personality orientation

excessive self-criticism

anaclitic orientation

over-dependence on others

negative cognitive triad

Reflects an individual's tendency to have negative views of themselves, their world, and their future

learned helplessness model

(Seligman)
Behavior that involves giving up on a situation; these people typically attribute setbacks to their personal flaws instead of situational factors

the hopelessness theory

high stress, low self- esteem etc. may lead to further feelings of helplessness and depression

retrospective design

Studies which look backward in time according to known outcomes

prospective designs

Makes hypotheses about what results will occur in the future according to test results

schizophrenic disorders

A class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior.

delusions of grandeur

people maintain that they are famous or important

delusions

False beliefs that are maintained even though they are clearly out of touch with reality
(believe their thoughts are being broadcast aloud, or are being injected into their minds against their will)

hallucinations

Sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input.
(hearing voices)

catatonic schizophrenia

Patients exhibit striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity

catatonic schizophrenia

Some patients go into withdrawal known as stupor in which they remain motionless or into states of catatonic excitement

disorganized-type schizophrenia

Particularly severe behavioral deterioration is seen
(Emotional indifference, incoherence, withdrawal, babbling, delusions begin to center on bodily functions)

paranoid-type schizophrenia

Marked by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of grandeur
- Essentially you think that you're awesome and that everyone is after you...
- Patients may become suspicious even of friends and family

undifferentiated-type schizophrenia

Marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms- this diagnosis describes those who cannot fit into the other 3 categories of the illness
("leftovers")

negative symptoms

Involve behavioral deficits such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and speech deterioration

positive symptoms

Involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and erratic thought patterns
(These patients respond better to treatment)

The neurodevelopmental hypothesis

States that schizophrenia is caused by various disruptions in the natural maturation processes of the brain before or at the time of birth

expressed emotion

The degree to which a relative of a schizophrenic patient displays highly critical or emotionally overinvolved attitudes towards the patient

personality disorders

Disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning
(Certain traits expressed excessively)

personality disorders

1. anxious/ fearful
2. odd/eccentric
3. dramatic/ impulsive

antisocial personality disorder

Marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms
(LACK A CONSCIENCE)

relativistic view

Argues that the criteria of mental illness varies greatly across cultures and there are no universal standards for normality or abnormality
(...DSM is highly Westernized, and centered towards white, urban, middle and higher classes...)

pancultural view

Argues that the criteria of mental illness is much the same across the world and that basic standards of normalcy exist internationally and believe that the Westernized view also applies to other cultures

culture-bound disorders

Abnormal syndromes found only in a few cultural groups

the stress-vulnerability model

Disorders emerge when high vulnerability intersects with high stress
- If stress is low, the disorder may not emerge
- If vulnerability is low, high stress may not be enough to cause the disorder to emerge

multifactorial causation

the interplay of heredity and environmental factors, sociohistorical context of psychology, and the influence of culture on psychological phenomena.

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