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Race

people share physical characteristics (skin color, features)

Ethnic Group

common natural origin or cultural heritage (language, customs)

Racial-Ethnic Group

people who have both distinctive physical and cultural characteristics

Dominant Group

group with the most economic and political power; privileges, highest social status

Apartheid

formal system of racial segregation

Minority Group

people who may be subject to differential and unequal treatment because of physical or cultural characeristics

Genocide

systematic efforts to destroy minorities

Segregation

physical separation of groups

Assimilation

no dominant group; absorbs minorites

Pluralism

no dominant group; all equal

Racism

belief that one racial group is better

Prejudice

an attitude toward people because of their groups membership

Stereotype

a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing

Scapegoats

someone who is punished for the errors of others

Discrimination

any act that threats people unfairly because of their groups membership

Economy

the wealth and resources of a country or region especially in terms of the production and consumption or goods and services

Works

activity involving mental or physical effort done in order to achieve a purpose or result

Capitalism

wealth is in private hands, encourages competition, generate profits

Monolopy

the exclusive possession of the supply or trade in the commodity or service

Oligopoly

a state of limited competition, in which a market is shared by a small numbner or producers or sellers

Socialism

community ownership of the production

Communism

a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership

Globalization

growth to a global or worldwide scale

Corporation

a social entity that has legal rights, privileges, and liabilities apart from those of its members

Conglomerate

giant corporation that owns a collection of companies in different industries

Offshoring

sending works or jobs to another country to cut costs

Downsizing

firing large numbers of employers at once

Underemployment

have part-time but want full time work or have jobs that below their experience and education levels

Government

formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce

Politics

social process through which individuals and groups acquire and exercise power and authority

Power

the ability of a person or group to affect the behavior of others despite resistance

Authority

legitimate use of power

Democracy

citizens have control

Totalitarianism

government controls every aspect of people's lives

Authoritarianism

state controls the lives of citizens but permits some individual freedom

Political Party

try to influence and control government

Special Interest Group

people that attempt to influence policy on 1 particular issue

Lobbyist

tries to influence political decisions

Political action committee

groups the raises money to elect candidate to office

Collective Behavior

behavior of a large group of people

Social Movement

large and organized activity to promote or resist some particular social change

Nuclear Family

a couple and their dependent children, regarded as a basic social unit

Endogamy

the custom of marrying only within limits of a local community, clan, or tribe

Exogamy

the custom of marrying outside a community, clan, or tribe

Cohabitation

the act of living together and having a sexual relationship

Patriarchal family system

family where the father in the head of the family

Matriarchal family system

family here the mother is the head of the family

Monogamy

the practice or state of being married to one person at a time

Polygamy

the practice of custom of being married to more than one person at a time

Demography

the study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, of the incidence of disease, which illustrates the changing structure of human populations

Deviance

behavior that voilates rules or norms

Crime

violation of societal norms and rules that have a punishment specified by law

Stigma

a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstances, quality, or person

Sanctions

punishments or rewards

Social group

people sharing some social relation

Primary group

small, face to face, extended time

Secondary group

large, formal, impersonal, temporary, highly structured

In group

a social group towards which an individual feels loyalty and respect, due to membership in the group

Out group

Social group towards which an individuals feel contempt, opposition, or desire to complete

Bureaucracy

designed to accomplish goals through efforts of a lot of people

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