a genetic change in the population
the consequence of certain individual organisms in a population being born with characteristics that enable them to survive better and reproduce more than the offspring of other individuals in the population
great variability in organisms in nature
organisms can be changed through selective breeding
chance alteration of gene frequencies, especially in small populations - can result in Genetic bottleneck, for example
Migration of organisms brings new alleles to existing populations
means changes in the genetics of organisms
describes how organisms change over time
happens to populations over generations, does not happen to individuals
is not about the origins of life (a hypothesis)
groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups
Process by which a population of organisms develops traits that make it into a new type of organism
Process requires reproductive isolation so random mutations are not shared
Process results in two populations that can no longer breed successfully
rare fertile hybrid offspring
more than two sets of DNA
Both happen more often in plants than in animals
There is a rat in South America with 4 sets of DNA in each cell.
are not developed in response to a change in the environment. do not develop because the organism needs them to survive. may be harmful or helpful or neutral for survival under different environmental conditions
Observation vs. Inference
Observations are descriptions made using the senses.
Inferences are explanations of observations.
Observations are facts, inferences are not facts.
Theories do not become facts or laws.
genetically identical copy of a biological entity
a fluid filled ball of about 100-150 cells
self replicating agents that serve to transfer and replicate genetic material
A cells incorporation of genetic material from outside its boundary
somatic cell nuclear transfer
the means of cloning mammals through fusion of one somatic (non sex) cell with an egg whose nucleus has been removed (an un-nucleated egg cell)
the convergence of several lines of biological research into unified evolutionary theory
a structure in an organism whose function has been lost during the course of evolution
the success of an organism in passing on its genes to offspring relative to other members of its population at a particular time
Five agents of microevolution
mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, sexual selection, natural selection
a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms
a structure in different organisms that is similar in function and appearance but is not the result of shared ancestry
evolution that occurs when similar environmental influences shape two separate individual lines in similar ways
common structures in different species that result from shared ancestry
the development of new species through evolution
a type of speciation that occurs in the absence of geographic populations. Polyploidy is a special form of this
a field of biology dealing with the diversity and relatedness of organisms. study the evolutionary history of groups of organisms
any of the taxonomic categories used in the classification of Earth's organisms
founder effect and genetic drift
As world travel becomes easier and human populations intermix, the occurrence of what phenomenon will probably decrease?
The evolution of populations due to chance is.....
gene flow in populations
Habitats set aside for endangered species are often sectioned into areas by roads, producing separate small populations. This causes problems in conservation because it reduces...
The biological species concept is based on...
Natural selection ultimately depends on what?
It mimics fertilization and begins embryonic development
In reproductive cloning, cells are subjected to an electric current under special circumstances. What effect does this have?
it is used to match two samples of DNA
Why is forensic DNA analysis an important part of biotechnology?
A DNA sequencing reaction can only accurately determine about 500 bases of DNA
Why are chromosomes cut into fragments for sequencing?
BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) library
a collection of human DNA fragments carried on chromosomes in bacterial cells.
Shotgun vs. map-based sequencing
In shotgun sequencing, DNA fragments are sequenced before their correct order is known. Map-based sequencing involves determining the correct order of DNA fragments before they are sequenced.
matching genome sequences to proteins
Genes in the human genome sequence can be identified in all of the following ways EXCEPT