Archaeology

92 terms by Kemberlyy 

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Final exam for class.

Artifact

Any movable object that has been used, modifies or manufactured by humans' artifacts include stone, bone, and metal tools; beads and other ornaments ; pottery; artwork; religious and sacred items

Antiquarian

Originally, someone who studied antiquities (that is ancient objects) largely for rhe sake of the objects themselves -- not to understand the people or culture that produced them.

Midden

Refuse deposit resulting from human activities, generally consisting of sediment, food remains such as charred seeds, animal bone, and shell and discarded artifacts.

Potsherd

Fragment of pottery

Stratigraphy

A site's physical structure produced by the deposition of geological and/or cultural sediments into layers, or strata

Culture history

The kind of archaeology practiced mainly in the early to mid-twentieth century; it 'explains' differences or changes over time in artifacts frequencies by posting the diffusion of ideas between neighboring culture or the migration of a people who had different mental templates for artifacts styles.

Culture

An integrated system of beliefs, tradition and customs that govern or influence a person's behavior. Culture is learned , shared by members of group , and based on the ability to think in terms of symbol

Ecofact

Plant or animal remains found at an archaeological site

Feature

The non portable evidence of technology, such as fire hearths , architectural elements , artifacts clusters , garbage pits , and soil stains

Processual paradigm

The paradigm that explains social, economic and cultural change as primarily the results of adaption to material conditions . External conditions (for example , the environment ) are assumed to take casual priority over ideational factors in explaining change

Postprocessual paradigm

A paradigm that focuses on humanistic approaches and rejects scientific objectively .It sees archaeology as inherently political and is more concerned with interpreting the past than with testing hypothesis. it sees change as arising largely from interactions between individuals operating within a symbolic and/or competitive system

Projectile points

Arrowheads, dart points or spear points

Smithsonian number

A unique catalog number given to each site; it consists of a number ( the state's position alphabetically ) a letter abbreviation for the county, and the site's sequential number within that county

shovel-testing

A sample survey method used in regions where rapid soil buildup obscures buried archaeological remains; it entails digging shallows , systematic pits across the survey unit

remote sensing

The application of methods that employ some from of electromagnetic energy to detect and measure characteristics of an archaeological target.

ground penetrating radar

A remote sensing technique in which radar pulses directed into the ground reflects back to the surface when they strike features or interfaces within the ground, showing the presence and depth of possible buried features

GIS

A computer program for storing, retrieving, analyzing and displaying cartographic data

georeferenced

Data that are input to GIS database using a common mapping reference for example , the UTM grid so that all data can be spatially analyzed.

landscape archaeology

The study of ancient human modification of the environment

provenience

An artifact's location relative to a system of spatial data collection.

Pleistocene

A geologic period from 2 million to 10,000 years ago, which was characterized by multiple periods of extensive glaciation

in situ

From Latin, meaning 'in position' the place where an artifact, ecofact, or feature was found during excavation or survey.

test excavation

A small initial excavation to determine a site's potential for answering a research question

datum point

The zero point, a fixed references used to keep control on a dig ; usually controls both the vertical and horizontal dimensions of provenience

strata

More or less homogeneous or gradational material visually separable from other levels by a discrete change in the character of the material- texture , compactness, color , rock , organic content and by a sharp break in the nature of deposition

living floor

A district buried surface on which people lived.

total station

A device that uses a beam of light bounced off a prism to determine an artifact's provenience it's accurate to 3 millimeters

index fossil concept

The idea that strata containing similar fossil assemblages are of similar age. This concept enables archaeologists to characterize and date strata within sites using distinctive artifacts forms that research shows to be diagnostic of a particular period of time

law of superimposition

The geological principle that in any pile of sedimentary rocks that have not been disturbed by folding or overturning, each bed is older than the layers above and younger than the layers below.

typology

The systematic arrangement of material culture intro types.

attribute

An individual characteristics that distinguishes one artifacts from another on the basis of its size, surface texture , form , material, method of manufacture , or design pattern

period

A length of time distinguished by particular items of material culture such as house form, pottery or subsistence.

phase

An Archaeological construct possessing traits sufficiently characteristics to distinguish it from other units similarly conceived spatially limited to roughly a locality or region and chronologically limited to the briefest interval of time possible.

assemblage

A collection of artifacts of one or several classes of materials (stone tools, ceramics, bones) that comes from a defined context , such as a site, feature or stratum.

component

An archaeological construct consisting of a stratum or set of strata that are presumed to be culturally homogeneous. A set of components from various sites in a region will make up a phase.

Principle of uniformitarianism

The principle asserting that the process now operating to modify the Earth's surface are the same processes that operated long ago in the geological past

faunal

In archaeology, animal bones in archaeological sites.

bonebed

Archaeological and paleontological sites consisting of the remains of a large number of animals, often of the same species and often representing a single moment in time- a mass kill or mass death.

experimental archaeology

Experiments designed to determine that archaeological correlates of ancient behavior may overlap with both ethnoarcheaology and taphonomy

heat treatment

A process whereby the flintknapping properties of stone tool raw material are improved by subjecting that material to heat.

flake

A thin sharp silver of stone removed from a core during the knapping process.

core

A piece of stone that is worked (knapped). cores sometimes serve merely as sources for raw materials they also they also can serve as functional tools.

flute

Distinctive channel on the faces of folosom and clovis projectile points formed by removal of one or more flakes from the points base.

ethnoarchaeology.

The study of contemporary people to determine how humans behavior is translated into the archaeological record.

zooarchaeologist

An individual who studies the faunal remains recovered from archaeological sites

faunal assemblage

The animal remains recovered from an archaeological site

element

In fanual analysis, a specific skeletal part of the body- for example, humerus or sternum

taxon

In faunal analysis, the classification of skeletal element to a taxonomic category -- species, genus , family or order

comparative collection

A skeletal collection of modern faure of both sexes and different ages used to make identifications of bones in fanual assemblages

macrobotanical remains

Non microscopic plant remains recovered from an archaeological site.

paleoethnobotanist

An archaeologist who analyzes and interprets plant remains from archaeological sites in order to understand the past interactions between human populations and plants

coprolite

Desiccated feces, often containing macrobotanical remains, pollen and the remains of small animals

palynology

The technique through which the fossil pollen grains and spores from archaeological sites are studied

phytoliths

Tiny silica particles contained in plants

bioarchaeology

The study of the human biological component evident in the archaeological record

osteology

The study of bone

burial population

A set of human burials that come from a limited region and a limited region and a limited time period the more limited the region and the time period, the more accurate will be inferences drawn from analysis of the burials

charnel house

A structure used by eastern Native Americans to lay out the dead where the body would decompose the bones would later be gathered and buried or cremated.

paleopathology.

The study of ancient patterns of disease and disorders

gender ideology

The culturally prescribed values assigned to the task and status of men and women; values can vary from society to society

androcentric

A perspective that focuses on what men do in a society, to the exclusion of women.

shell midden

The remains of shellfish collecting some shellfish middens can become many meters thick.

cargo system

Part of the social organization found in many Central American communities in which a wealthy individual is named carry out and bear the cost pf important religious ceremonies throughout the year

kinship

Socially recognized network of relationship through which individuals are related to one another by ties of descent (real or imagined) and marriage.

clan

A group marti- or patrilenages who see themselves as descended from a (sometimes mythical) common ancestor

moieties

Two groups of clans that perform reciprocal ceremonial obligations for one another; moieties often intermarry

Mississippian

A widespread cultural tradition across much of the eastern Unites States from 1200 to 500 bp. Mississippians societies engaged in intensive village-based maize horticulture and constructed large, eastern platform mounds that served as substructures for temples, residences and council buildings.

Southeastern Ceremonial Complex

An assortment of ceremonial objects that occurs in the graves of high-status Mississippian individuals. Ritual exchange of these artifacts crosscut the boundaries of many distinctive local cultures.

Hopewell

A cultural tradition found primarily in the Ohio River Valley and its tributaries, dating from 2200 to 1600 bp. Hopewell societies engaged in hunting and gathering and in some horticulture of indigenous plants. They are known for their mortuary rituals, which included charnel houses and burial mounds, some central tombs contained exotics. They also constructed geometric earthworks as ceremonial enclosures and effigy mounds.

Hopewell Interaction Sphere

The common set of symbol found in the Midwestern United states between 2200bp and 1600bp

cosmology

The study of origin, large-scale structure, and future of the universe. A cosmological explanation demonstrates how the universe developed both the totality and its constituent parts and also describes what principles keep it together.

iconography

Art forms or writing systems (such as Egyptian or Maya hieroglyphics) that symbolically represented ideas about religion or cosmology

oracle

A shrine in which a deity reveals hidden knowledge or divine purpose.

Upper Paleolithic

The last major division of the Old world paleolithic, beginning about 40,000 years ago and lasting until the end of the Pleistocene (about 12000bp)

Magdalenian

The last major culture of the European Upper Paleolithic period (about 18,000-12,000bp) named after the rock shelter La Madeleine, in southwestern France. Magdalena artisans crafted intricately carved tools of reindeer bone and antler; this was also the period during which Upper Paleolithic cave art in France and Spain reached its zenith.

sympathetic magic

Rituals in which doing something to an image of an object produces the desired effect on the real object.

structuralism

A paradigm holding that human culture is the expression of unconscious modes of thought and reasoning notably binary oppositions . Structuralism is most closely associated with the French anthropologist Claude Levi-strauss.

totem

A natural object an animal, from which a lineage or clan believes itself to be descended and/or with which lineage or clan members have special relations.

shaman

One who has the power to contact the spirit world through trance, possession, or visions. On the basis of the ability , the shaman invokes , manipulates or coerces the power of the spirits for socially recognized ends-- both good and ill

vision quest

A ritual in which an individual seeks visions through starvation, dehydration, and exposure; considered in some cultures to be a way to communicate with the supernatural world.

critical theory

A critique of modern social order that emphasizes exploitative class interests;its aims to change and not simply to understand society.

medieval mindset

The culture of the early (pre-AD 1660) British colonies that emphasized the group rather than the individual and in which the line between culture and nature was blurred; people were seen as conforming to nature.

Georgian order

A worldview (1660/1680-1820) arising in the European Age of Reason and implying that the world has a single basic immutable order. Using the powers of reason, people can discover what that order is and can thereby control the environment as they wish. The Georgian order is informed by the rise of scientific thought and by the balance and order in Renaissance architecture and art.

forensic archaeology

The application of archaeological and bioarcaeological knowledge for legal purposes.

cultural resource management

A professional field that conducts activities including archaeology, related to compliance with legislation aimed at conserving cultural resources

Antiquities Act

Passed in 1906, this act requires federal permits before excavation or collecting artifacts on federal land. established a permitting process and gave the president the authority to create national monuments .

NHPA

Passed in 1966, this act created the National Register of Historic places, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and State Historic Preservation offices, as well as a process to mitigate the impact of development ; it also requires that government agencies provide good stewardship of their cultural resources.

Archaeological Resources protection Act.

Passed in 1979, this act prohibits the excavation or removal of artifacts from federal property without a permit prohibits site the sale, exchange, or transport of artifacts acquired illegally from federal property and increased the penalties for violations of the acts over those of the antiques act.

UNESCO Convention of 1970

The international agreement requires that signers create legislation and the administrative structure to regulate the import and export of cultural objects forbid their nations museums from acquiring illegally exported cultural objects establish ways inform other nations when illegally exported objects stolen fro, public institutions and establish register of art dealers and require them to register

NAGPRA

Passed in 1990 this act protects Indian graves on federal and tribal lands, recognizes tribal authority over treatment of unmarked graves. Prohibits the commercial selling of native dead bodies. Requires an inventory and reparation of human remains held by the federal funding requires these same institutions to return inappropriately acquired sacred objects and other important communally owned property to native owners and sets up a process to determine ownership of human remains found on federal and tribal property after November 16, 1990

cultural affiliation

In NAGPRA a relationship of a shared group identity which can be reasonably traced historically or prehistorically between a present day Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization and an identifiable earlier group.

cairn

An artifacts mound of stones; often constructed as an aid to navigation , as a memorial. or to mark the location of a grave.

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