Vascular adhesion molecule, important in the contribution of brain information: affects blood vessels and can cause brain tissue atrophy.
Unfolded protein response: activation can be linked to the development of insulin resistance and leptin resistance.
Family of transcription factors that activates genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis,cell senescence and immunity.
Ghrelin O-acyl transferase: enzyme that activates ghrelin to stimulate appetite and hunger.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha:help regulate energy homeostasis, lipid metabolism, appetite, fertility, and immune and stress responses.
Intercellular adhesion molecule: Can contribute to inflammation in the brain, triggering a series of events that affect blood vessels and eventually cause brain tissue atrophy
Very low density lipoproteins: very small, dense lipoproteins; correlated with accelerated rates of atherosclerosis, they reduce blood flow and can rupture triggering a blood clot( heart attack/stroke). Elevated in metabolic syndrome.
White adipose tissue: traditional role in long term fat storage; also important glad/ endocrine organ that secretes fatty acids, leptin, adiponectin, TNFα, and others that regulate energy homeostasis, lipid metabolism, appetite, fertility, and immune and stress responses.
Perioxisome proliferator-activator receptors: control how the body uses sugar and fat. Family of transcription factors ( alpha, delta, gamma)
Brown adipose tissue: oxidizes fatty acids; has the ability to reduce its ATP output, uncouple protons used in the synthesis of ATP and use them to generate heat.
Glucose transporter-4: located in the cytoplasm and moves to the cell membrane when insulin occupies the receptor which causes its up-regulation and admits glucose into the cell.
Pro-opiomelanocortin: satiety producing neurons that counter balance neuropeptide y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP).
Endogenous cannabinoids: produced in neural membranes; act as retrograde signals to inhibit glutamate and GABA release at nerve terminals. Also have divergent actions on food intake.
First hormone discovered that stimulates appetite and hunger; must be acylated by GOAT. Produced in stomach, and increases GABA inhibitory synaptic contacts on POMC neurons.
Hormone produced by the pancreas(beta cells) that is released when stimulated by elevated glucose levels. This hormone decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating the transport of glucose into the body cells where it is oxidized for energy or converted to glycogen or fat for storage.
Second important hormone to be discovered in adipose tissue; protects cardiovascular system against atherosclerosis and prevents T2DM by sensitizing us to insulin. Release of this hormone is inversely correlated with adipose tissue size( lean people, higher levels). Prevents the metabolic derangement that cause T2DM, obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and some dementias.
Neuropeptide Y: implicated in control of brown fat differentiation. Widely distributed in the CNS; involved in the regulation of anxiety, stress reactions, energy balance, circadian rhythms, and cognition.
Agouti-related peptide: hunger producing neuron; inhibited by leptin and insulin.
type of immune cell; produce a potent inflammatory molecule, interleukin-1 beta (1L-1β), blocks insulin signaling.
lining of blood vessels. Surrounded by connective tissue.
the most common form of CVD; a disease characterized by plaques along the inner walls of the arteries.
Released when fasting and when glucose blood level is low( hypoglycemia). Action is opposite of insulin, stimulates the conversion of stored glycogen into glucose.
Synthesized in adipocytes;storage depot for fatty acids. Seen as a hormone with two opposite functions: rises in response to overfeeding to limit the overeating; and drops sharply during starvation to signal a sharp loss in adipose tissue size.
Hormone from bones; travels to other organs to regulate other hormones, insulin/ testosterone.
1. relative lack of insulin/insulin resistance
2. symptoms similar to T1DM
3. risk factors - obesity, inactivity, HTN
1. body unable to prod insulin
2. symptoms: freq urination, extreme thirst, hunger, LOW, lack of energy
3. rapid onset - if treatment not commenced soon, diabetic ketoacidosis dev
a cluster of metabolic abnormalities defined as any combination of three of the following: abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and abnormal blood lipid levels
Psychiatric illness characterized by extremely low body weight and body image distortion with an obsessive fear of gaining weight. Individuals with anorexia are known to control body weight commonly through the means of voluntary starvation, purging, excessive exercise, and the use of diet pills or diuretic drugs.
An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
Non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis: excessive triglycerides may form into larger LDs creating a fatty liver similar to the liver of alcoholics; increasing along with worldwide obesity.
Occurs in hypothalamic AgRP neurons when food is in short supply. These neurons break down their lipid droplets liberating free fatty acids as shown in the graphic below.
From impaired insulin action in the hypothalamus; hypothalamic insulin resistance un-restrains or disinhibits lipolysis and reduces lipogenic capacity in WA. (peripheral resistance).
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon.
Broken down by AgRP neurons during autophagy.
Stored in liver cells (hepatocytes), muscle cells (myocytes) & astrocytes as the starch, glycogen.
Direct stem cells to differentiate into brown fat cells; groups of transcription factors, PPAR/ NF-kB
Hormones are produced and released by adipose tissue. These are Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, which can add to the low grade inflammatory state.
metabolism is the
catabolism - "breaking down" of organic matter
anabolism - construction/"building up" of organic matter
Mobile source of calories that travel in the bloodstream, three groups of fats linked together.
Comprises both long-term signaling from the adipose tissue and episodic signaling primarily from the gut. Located primarily in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
One of the two systems that govern food intake