Dr Choi Final

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35 terms · Islam

'Aeed Al-Adha

"The Fest of Sacrifice"; the most important religious holiday in the Islamic world. It begins the day after the Hajj, when the faithful who can afford to do so sacrifice an animal in commemoration of Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son Ishmael.

'Aeed Al-Fitr

"The Feast of Breaking the Fast"; a major religious holiday observed at the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting.

Allah

Contraction of an Arabic term that means "the God"; the word used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to refer to God.

Baraka

"Blessing power" which comes from God into creation for the benefit of human beings.

Caliphs

The successors of Muhammad to the leadership of the Muslim community who are not, however, considered prophets.

Five Pillars of Islam

The fundamental beliefs and practices for Muslims: the witness of faith, prayer, fasting, almsgiving, and pilgrimage to Mecca

Hadith

A reported saying or action of Muhammad. The canonical collections of hadith are used to determine the sunna of the prophet.

Hajj

The pilgrimage to Mecca, which is to be made once in a person's lifetime if financially and physically possible; one of the five pillars of faith

Hijra

Muhammad's emigration from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) in 622 C.E. This turning point in Islamic histroy marks the beggining of the Muslim Hijri calendar

Imam

In Sunni tradition, the leader of salat prayer; in Shi'ite thought, the umma's divinely guided leader.

Islam

Literally, "submission" or "surrender" to God. The term is used in the Qur'an to describe true monothesitic worship as revealed to Muhhamad and other prophets before him; it is also commonly used as the name of the religion practiced by Muslims.

Jihad

Literally means "striving" or "struggling" to serve God and the umma. In a narrower sense, it somtimes involves armed striggle against outside aggression and is therefore sometimes translated as "holy war".

Ka'aba

The black-draped cubicle structure in Mecca which contains the black stone and which, according to legend, was first built by Abraham and his son Ishmael.

Mahdi

Messianic figure who, according to tradition, will appear at e end of history to prepare the world for final judgment by God.

Mecca

Most sacred place of Islam; birthplace of Muhammad and location of the Ka'aba.

Medina

Shortened form of Madinat Al-Nabi, meaning "city of the prophet"; the second holiest site in Islam. This is the place, first known as Yathrib, to which Muhammad fled in 622 C.E. and where many of the basic institutions of Islam were established. Muhammad was buried here.

Minaret

A tower associated with a mosque from which the call to prayer is given.

Mosque

From the Arabic word masjid, meaning "place of prostration" for ritual prayer. Mosques are the centers of Islamic communal life where prayers are held, religious education conducted, and charitable services provided.

Muezzin

Individual who gives the call to prayer.

Muhammad

(570-632 CE) The founder of Islam and the prophetic figure through whom Allah revealed the Qur'an.

Muslim

A person who practices Islam; means literally "one who submits to God".

Qur'an

Means "recitation"; the name of the holy book of Islam, which is the mind and will of Allah delivered to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel; sometimes Anglicized "Koran".

Ramadan

The month in which Muhammad received his initial call and the month in which faithful Muslims fast during daylight hours; the ninth lunar month of the Muslim calendar.

Salat

Ritual prayer that is conducted five times each day and involves performing a prescribed set of physical movements designed to turn heart and mind toward God; one of the five pillars of faith.

Sawm

Fasting as a means of promoting individual spirituality and communal well-being; one of the five pillars of faith.

Shahada

The Muslim confession of faith: "There is no god but God, and Muhammad is His Messenger"; the first of the five pillars of faith.

Shari'a

The all-inclusive legal code of Islam

Shi'ites

Muslims who believe that leadership of the community should have passed to Muhammad's son-in-law 'Ali and should be hereditary. Shi'a means "the party or sect."

Shirk

The heresy of ascribing partners to God, or believing in more than one deity; opposite of tawheed.

Sufi

An adherent of the branch of Islam that emphasizes internal spiritual experience rather than external ritual forms and seeks mystical union with God in this life.

Sunna

The customs and exemplary behavior of Muhammad. Next to the Qur'an, the sunna is the most important epistemological source in Islam.

Tawheed

The doctrine of the uncompromised unity of God : "There is no god but Allah."

'Ulama

Religious scholars or clergy who are the authoritative interpreters of Islamic law.

Umma

The worldwide community of Muslims.

Zakat

The practice of giving 2.5 percent of one's accumulated wealth to support the umma; embodiment of the principle of charitable giving and one of the five pillars of faith.

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