-an eastern Indian tribe in Minnesota
-During the civil war, forced into a cramped reservation & exploited by corrupt white agents
-Suddenly rebelled & killed over 700 whites
-As punishment, 38 tribe members were killed & the tribe was exiled to the Dakotas
-In 1890 during a religious revival of the Sioux led by Wovoka
-Inspired ecstatic, mystical visions among many participants
-White spectators feared the dances might be preliminary to hostilities
-December 29, 1890
-an attempt of the Seventh Calvary to round up a group of cold & starving Sioux at Wounded Knee
-Resulted in a massacre- killing over 200 Indians & 40 white soldiers
Frederick Jackson Turner
viewed the West as "free land" awaiting the expansion of Anglo-American civilization & renewed American ideas of democracy & individualism
Robert V. Hines
-stated that the settlement of the West was accomplished by less glamorous figures in less exciting ways
-the farmers, rather than the cowboys, were responsible for establishing a settled society
-in addition to adjusting to the obstacles of nature, they were faced with steadily falling prices for crops & they grew large debts for their land & tools
-farmers' political action paved the way for the Progressive movement
Turnerian West v. New Historian West
-characterized by heroism, triumph, & the progress of brave white men
-characterized by oppression, greed, & failure; highly developed civilizations that already existed in the region were conquered, not settled, by white Americans
-the most widespread Indian group in the West
-buffalo: the economic basis for their way of life
-the Plains Warriors: white settlers' biggest enemies
-the Sioux, Arapaho, & Cheyenne forged a powerful alliance that dominated the northern plains
What were the greatest dangers to the tribes?
-ecological & economic decline
-highly vulnerable to eastern infectious disease (smallpox)
Hispanic New Mexico
-the Far West was originally part of the Spanish Empire, and later, the Mexican Republic
-the centers of Spanish-speaking society were the farming & trading communities
-descendants of the original Spanish settlers were primarily cattle & sheep ranchers
What was the result of the rebellion of the Taos Indians in New Mexico in 1847?
-New Mexico remained under military rule for 3 years
-A territorial government was established in 1850
What was the significance of the establishment of railroads for New Mexico?
-resulted in new ranching, farming, & mining in the Southwest
-attracted Mexican immigrants in search of work
Hispanic California & Texas
-In the 1830s in California, the original Spanish mission society collapsed & was replaced by a secular Mexican aristocracy
-Mexicans & Mexican-Americans increasingly became part of the lower end of the state's working class in both CA & TX
The Chinese Migration
-By 1880, more than 200,000 Chinese had settled in the West, primarily as "free laborers"
-Whites viewed the industrious & successful Chinese as a rival & quickly became hostile
-After limited success in the Gold Rush, Chinese immigrants found work in the railroad industry
-formed 90% of the labor force of the Central Pacific
Describe the significance of the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad for Chinese immigrants
-The Chinese flocked to cities & formed Chinatowns
-San Francisco became the largest single Chinese community
Chinese Exclusion Act
-Congress responded to the political pressure & growing violence by passing this act in 1882
-banned Chinese immigration into the U.S. for 10 years & barred Chinese already in the U.S. from becoming citizens
-resulted in a dramatic decline (more than 40%) of the Chinese population
-A political group in California that gained significant political power in the state on the basis of its hostility to the Chinese
-Led to the Chinese Exclusion Act
Migration from the East
-Between 1870-1900, over 2 million Europeans migrated to the U.S.
-Included: Scandinavians, Germans, Irish, Russians, Czechs
-Settlers were attracted to the West by the gold & silver deposits, the sod of plains, & opportunities for raising cattle & sheep
In what ways was the West closely tied to the emerging capitalist-industrial economy of the East?
-The miners who flooded into California, Colorado, Nevada, & the Dakotas were responding to the demand in the East for gold & silver, but even more for iron, copper, lead, zinc, & quartz.
-Cattle & sheep ranchers produced meat, wool, & leather for eastern consumers & manufacturers.
-Farmers grew crops for sale in national & international commodities markets.
Homestead Act of 1862
-Permitted settlers to buy plots of 160 acres for a small fee if they occupied the land they purchased for 5 years & improved it
-Subsequent laws made it possible for individuals to acquire as much as 1,280 acres at little cost
What was the intended purpose of the Homestead Act of 1862?
-Supporters believed it would create new markets & new outposts of commercial agriculture for the nation's growing economy.
-In 1859, news that gold had been found in the Washoe district drew miners to Nevada -but even more plentiful was the silver found in the Great Comstock Lode & other Washoe veins
-After a few years of tremendous profits, the mines quickly played out.
-Californians dominated the settlement of Nevada, & when the first placer deposits ran out, began to use quartz mining, which allowed them to retrieve silver from deeper veins.
-western novel written by Owen Wister
-romanticized the cowboy's supposed freedom from traditional social constraints, his affinity with nature, & his propensity for violence
-the main character was a semi-educated man whose natural decency, courage, & compassion made him a powerful symbol of the supposed virtues of the "frontier"
-gave voice to the romantic vision of the West as the last frontier in a series of novels & memoirs
-the characters in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer & The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn repudiated the constraints of organized society & attempted to escape into a more natural world
-In the early 1850s, the idea of establishing one great enclave in which many tribes could live gave way to this new reservations policy
-In 1851, the government assigned all the tribes their own reservations, confirmed by individual treaties- which were illegitimately negotiated with "treaty chiefs"- unauthorized representatives chosen by whites
Indian Peace Commission
-replaced the policy of "concentration"
-moved all of the Plains tribes into 2 large reservations in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) & the Dakotas
-resulted in whites slaughtering herds of Buffalo, which consequently destroyed Indians' ability to resist white advance
Sand Creek Massacre
-in response to conflict between the Arapaho & Cheyenne tribes & white miners, whites formed a large territorial militia in eastern Colorado
-the governor encouraged all friendly Indians to congregate at army posts for protection
-a band of Arapaho & Cheyenne, under Black Kettle, camped near Fort Lyon on Sand Creek in November 1864
-Colonel Chivington led a volunteer militia force to the camp & massacred 133 people
-105 of which were women & children
-a U.S. colonel of the famous Seventh Cavalry
-Killed Black Kettle 4 years after the Sand Creek Massacre near the Texas border
-Contributed in forcing the Sioux back to their reservation
-Killed an army of 2,500 tribal warriors at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876
-the leader of the Nez Perce, a small & relatively peaceful tribe in Oregon that were forced to move to a reservation
-on the journey, several younger Indians, drunk & angry, killed 4 white settlers
-persuaded his followers to flee from the expected retribution
Battle at White Bird Canyon
-Chief Joseph's tribe drove off American soldiers, then scattered- beginning a remarkable chase
-Chief Joseph's group was caught by American soldiers just before reaching the Canadian border & finally gave up after meeting with the American general, Nelson Miles.
Describe why Congress abolished the practice by which tribes owned reservation lands communally.
-claimed they were acting for the good of the Indians, whom they considered a "vanishing race" in need of rescue by white society
-the action was designed to force Indians to become landowners & farmers & become part of white civilization
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
-provided for the gradual elimination of most tribal ownership of land & the allotment of tracts to individual owners
-160 acres to the head of a family
-80 acres to a single adult or orphan
-40 acres to each dependent child
Describe the limiting factors of the Dawes Act
-adult owners were given U.S. citizenship, but they were unable to gain full title to their property for 25 years
-intended to prevent them from selling the land
-the government eventually abandoned most efforts of enforcing the Dawes Act & much of the reservation land was never distributed
Bureau of Indian Affairs
-relentlessly promoted assimilation
-took children away from their families & sent them to white boarding schools
-encouraged Christianity in an attempt to stop Indian religious rituals