ch 24 DIGESTION

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Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?
ANSWER:
esophagus
pancreas
spleen
colon
appendix

b

Digestion refers to the
ANSWER:
mechanical breakdown of food.
chemical breakdown of food.
mechanical and chemical breakdown of food.
progressive dehydration of indigestible residue.
All of the answers are correct.

c

Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract are called
ANSWER:
segmentation.
pendular movements.
peristalsis.
mastication.
churning movements.

c

The activities of the digestive system are regulated by
ANSWER:
intrinsic nerve plexuses.
parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons.
hormones.
the contents of the digestive tract.
All of the answers are correct.

e

The digestive tract is also referred to as the
ANSWER:
GI tract.
esophagus.
alimentary canal.
alimentary canal and the GI tract.
All of the answers are correct.

d

he lamina propria and mucous epithelium are components of the
ANSWER:
mucosa.
muscularis mucosa.
adventitia.
serosa.
submucosa

a

stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following, except in the
ANSWER:
stomach.
oral cavity.
oropharynx.
anal canal.
esophagus

a

What organ is primarily responsible for water absorption?
ANSWER:
esophagus
large intestine
anus
pancreas
stomach

B

Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?
ANSWER:
esophagus
small intestine
stomach
large intestine
anus

d

The double-layer sheets of serous membrane that support the viscera are called
ANSWER:
peritoneal sheets.
the dorsal and ventral frenulums.
the diaphragm.
ascites.
mesenteries.

e

Which layer of the digestive tract directly underlies the epithelium?
ANSWER:
submucosa
lamina propria
lymphoid nodules
muscularis mucosae
digestive epithelium

b

What provides access for blood vessels entering and leaving the liver?
ANSWER:
greater omentum
falciform ligament
mesentery proper
diaphragm
lesser omentum

e

The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity
ANSWER:
secretes peritoneal fluid.
decreases friction.
lubricates the cavity.
prevents irritation.
All of the answers are correct

e

Functions of the tongue include all of the following, except
ANSWER:
partitioning the oropharynx from the nasopharynx.
sensory analysis of food.
manipulation of food.
mechanical processing of food.
aiding in speech.

a

he part of a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves is the
ANSWER:
dentin.
periodontium.
pulp cavity.
enamel.
cementum.

c

he root of a tooth is covered by
ANSWER:
the root canal.
cementum.
dentin.
enamel.
pulp.

b

The crown of a tooth is covered by
ANSWER:
periodontium.
cementum.
pulp.
enamel.
dentin.

d

Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results from
ANSWER:
hunger.
myenteric reflexes.
parasympathetic stimulation.
sympathetic stimulation.
hormonal stimulation.

c

Functions of teeth include
ANSWER:
clipping.
cutting.
crushing.
tearing.
All of the answers are correct.

e

The space between the cheeks or lips and the teeth is called the
ANSWER:
larynx.
dip sulcus.
fauces.
pharynx.
vestibule.

e

The uvula is located at the
ANSWER:
base of a tooth.
margin of the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx.
posterior margin of the soft palate.
margin of the vestibule.
posterior of the tongue.

c

During deglutition,
ANSWER:
the lower esophageal sphincter opens.
the larynx elevates and the epiglottis closes.
smooth muscle contracts.
the soft palate elevates.
All of the answers are correc

e

Parietal cells secrete
ANSWER:
hydrochloric acid.
enteropeptidase.
pepsinogen.
gastrin.
mucus.

a

Chief cells secrete
ANSWER:
pepsinogen.
mucus.
gastrin.
intrinsic factor.
hydrochloric acid.

a

G cells of the stomach secrete
ANSWER:
pepsin.
enteropeptidase.
gastrin.
secretin.
cholecystokinin.

c

The region of the stomach that empties into the duodenum is the
ANSWER:
body.
pylorus.
fundus.
antrum.
cardia.

b

he prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are called
ANSWER:
villi.
papillae.
cardia.
rugae.
plicae.

d

The enzyme pepsin digests
ANSWER:
lipids.
carbohydrates.
vitamins.
nucleic acids.
proteins.

e

During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion,
ANSWER:
production of gastric juice slows down.
secretin inhibits parietal and chief cells.
the stomach responds to distention.
there is an increased flow of action potentials along the vagus nerve to the stomach.
the intestinal reflex inhibits gastric emptying.

d

he hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach is
ANSWER:
secretin.
CCK.
gastrin.
enteropeptidase.
cholecystokinin.

c

All of the following are true of the lining of the stomach, except that it
ANSWER:
is covered by a thick, viscous mucus.
is constantly being replaced.
recycles bile.
has a simple columnar epithelium.
contains gastric pits.

c

The pH of the blood in gastric veins
ANSWER:
is constant because of buffering.
is greater following a 24-hour fast than during digestion of a large meal.
is greater during digestion of a large meal than following a 24-hour fast.
None of the answers are correct.

c

A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in
ANSWER:
a higher pH during gastric digestion.
decreased gastrin production.
a lower pH during gastric digestion.
decreased production of pepsinogen by chief cells.
increased protein digestion in the stomach.

a

What chemical is found in the fluid that flows through the pancreatic duct?
ANSWER:
Pepsin
Salivary amylase
Bile pigment
Trypsinogen

d

Which of these gut hormones and actions are mismatched?
ANSWER:
secretin; stimulate bile secretion
vasoactive intestinal peptide; inhibit intestinal blood flow
cholecystokinin; stimulate gall bladder contraction
gastrin; stimulate gastric motility

b

The duodenal ampulla receives secretions from the
ANSWER:
duodenum and the pancreatic duct.
duodenum and the pylorus.
duodenum and the jejunum.
common bile duct and the pancreatic duct.
duodenum and the bile duct.

d

The middle segment of the small intestine is the
ANSWER:
ileum.
jejunum.
pylorus.
cecum.
duodenum

b

Plicae circulares are
ANSWER:
ridges in the wall of the stomach.
circumferential folds in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine.
abnormal structures formed by excessive pressure in the small intestine.
sacculations in the colon.
fingerlike projections on the surface of the mucosa of the small intestine.

b

An intestinal hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile is
ANSWER:
secretin.
cholecystokinin.
GIP.
gastrin.
enteropeptidase.

b

The intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release a watery, bicarbonate-rich fluid is
ANSWER:
secretin.
cholecystokinin.
gastrin.
enterocrinin.
GIP.

a

An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is
ANSWER:
cholecystokinin.
enterocrinin.
secretin.
gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).
enteropeptidase.

d

An intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion is
ANSWER:
cholecystokinin.
enteropeptidase.
secretin.
gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).
gastrin.

e

The Kupffer cells of the liver
ANSWER:
destroy bacteria.
present antigens.
are phagocytic.
destroy RBCs.
All of the answers are correct.

e

Bile is stored in the
ANSWER:
appendix.
duodenum.
gallbladder.
pancreas.
liver.

c

The essential functions of the liver include
ANSWER:
bile production.
hematological regulation.
metabolic regulation.
albumin production for blood osmotic pressure.
All of the answers are correct.

e

An obstruction of the common bile duct often results in
ANSWER:
a decrease in production of pancreatic juice.
undigested fat in the feces.
hepatitis.
cirrhosis of the liver.
inability to digest protein

b

In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a fluid
ANSWER:
rich in bicarbonate ion.
rich in enzymes.
rich in bile.
rich in mucus.
that contains only amylase.

a

n response to the hormone cholecystokinin, the pancreas secretes a fluid
ANSWER:
rich in bicarbonate.
rich in bile.
rich in mucus.
rich in enzymes.
that contains only amylase.

d

Tom has hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe in Tom?
ANSWER:
blood in the feces
elevated levels of blood glucose
overproduction of blood plasma albumin
impaired digestion of protein
jaundice

e

Tony is a chronic alcoholic with cirrhosis of the liver, a condition in which liver cells die and are replaced by connective tissue. Which of the following signs would you expect to observe in Tony?
ANSWER:
decrease in plasma protein production
portal hypertension and ascites
jaundice
increased clotting time
All of the answers are correct.

e

Hydrochloric acid from the stomach is neutralized in the small intestine by:
ANSWER:
enzymes from the intestinal crypts
bile from the liver
sodium bicarbonate from the pancreas
water that was ingested with the food
trypsin

c

Pancreatic juice enters the small intestine at the ________.

duodenal papilla

Functions of the large intestine include
ANSWER:
chemical breakdown of food.
secretion of vitamins.
resorption (absorption) of water and compaction of feces.
absorption of bile salts.
production of gas to move waste toward the rectum.

c

Powerful peristaltic contractions that occur a few times each day in the colon are called
ANSWER:
defecation.
mass movements.
haustral churning.
segmentation.
pendular movements.

b

Enzymatic breakdown of which of the following compounds doesn't begin until it reaches the stomach?
Hint A.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
lipids
proteins
carbohydrates

b

Which of the following enzymes is important for breaking down protein?
Hint B.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
amylase
lipase
pepsin

c

hich of the following enzymes is important for the digestion of fat?
Hint C.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
trypsin
pancreatic amylase
pancreatic lipase
pepsin

c

In the small intestine, which of the following enzymes breaks down maltose?
Hint D.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
sucrase
maltase
dextrinase
lactase
glucoamylase

b

The breakdown products of which of the following are absorbed into lacteals?
Hint E.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
carbohydrates
fats
proteins

b

An enzyme that digests proteins into peptides is
ANSWER:
amylase.
nuclease.
lipase.
trypsin.
maltase.

d

The enzyme amylase digests
ANSWER:
polysaccharides.
peptides.
nucleotides.
disaccharides.
triglycerides.

a

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the
ANSWER:
mouth.
ileum.
stomach.
duodenum.
esophagus.

a

Products of fat digestion are transported initially by
ANSWER:
the arterioles.
veins.
lymphatic vessels.
the interstitial fluid.
capillaries.

c

Which of these descriptions best matches the term cholecystokinin (CCK)?
ANSWER:
causes gallbladder to contract
stimulates gastric secretion
stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum

a

Which of the following is true regarding lactose intolerance?
ANSWER:
the intestinal crypts are not producing the enzyme lactase
lactose intolerant infants cannot digest dairy fat and are at risk of starvation
the person cannot digest any type of monosaccharide
the enzyme maltase begins to digest lactose
the stomach produces inadequate amounts of lactase

a

The enzyme that digests starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides is ________.

amylase

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