Second Continental Congress
Met in Philadelphia three weeks after the battles of Lexington and Concord. Delegates from all colonies, except Georgia, who had not yet sent a representative, met and agreed to support the war, although they did not agree with the purpose of it. There were two sides, at one extreme was a group led by John and Samuel Adams, Richard Henry Lee, and others, these people had already favored independence and wanted to gain it from the war. At the other end of the extreme was a group led by such moderates like John Dickinson who hoped for a quick reconciliation with Great Britian.
Richard Henry Lee
A man from Virginia, who was a leader of one of the sides of the Second Continental Congress. The side that he led was for independence and hoped to gain it from the war.
A man from Pennsylvania that led one end of the extreme at the Second Continental Congress. He led a group of moderates, much like himself, that hoped for a quick reconciliation with Great Britian.
German mercenaries that were hated. They were a group that the British had tried to recruit against the colonists. This recruitment was also tried on the Indians and African Slaves. All of it angered the colonists.
A man who had emerged from England to America less than two years before he published his impassioned pamphlet that crystallized the feeling of the colonists about the British resentment. It was called Common Sense and was published in January 1776. The purpose of this was that he wanted to turn angered Americans away from particular parliamentary measures and more toward what he considered the root of the problem, the English Constitution itself. In his pamphlet Common Sense he wrote for Americans to break completely with a political system that could inflict such brutality on its own people. This sold over 100,000 cpoies in only a few months and helped create a rapid growth of support for the idea of independence in the early months of 1776.
Articals of Confederation
The first constitution of the United States of America that was adopted as a plan for the union in November 1777. This document confirmed the existing weak, decentralized system.
A philosopher whose ideas from his social contract theory was used in the first part of the Declaration. His theory was that the government was formed to protect what Thomas Jefferson called, "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
When the colonies needed money for the war they turned to the idea of printing paper money. They soon printed too much and inflation occured, Congress realized that the money was virtually worthless. In the end the war was financed by borrowing money from other nations.
Marquis de Lafayette
Foreign military experts from France that gave aid to George Washington and the new Continental army. With the help from this group the army was able to prevail against the mightiest power in the world.
Baron Von Steuben
Foreign millitary experts from Prussia that aided George Washington and the Continental army. They also help the colonists prevail against the British.
A battle that was fought on Breed's hill on July 17, 1775, in which the patriots suffered severe casualties and withdrew. However, they were able to inflict even greated losses on the enemy. Americans lost about 400 while the British lost about 1,000
A general, along with Richard Montgomery, who unsuccessfully threatened Quebec in the late 1775 and early 1776 in a battle that Montgomery was killed in and he was wounded.
A British General that arrived in New York in the summer of 1776, with hundreds of British ships and 32,000 British soldiers. He offered Congress a choice between royal pardon or a battle against overwhelming odds. The Colonists refused the offer and faught, but were pushed back out of Manhattan, then retreated over the plains of New Jersey, across the Delaware River, and into Pennsylvania.
A British commander of the northern forces, who was supposed to lead his forces down from Canada and meet William Howe in Albany. He began a two-pronged attack to the south along the Mohawk and the upper Hudson approaches to Albany. He was abandoned by Howe, however, who instead of meeting with him, went to capture Philadelphia. This left him alone to carry out the plan in the north.
Where George Washington went into winter quarters after he launched an unsuccessful Patriot attack against the British on October 4 at Germantown, which was just outside of Philadelphia.
After John Burgoyne was mauled by New England minutemen on August 16 he was sent into a need for supplies. Short of materials, he fought several costly battles and finally he was forced to withdraw to Saratoga, where this general surrounded him and took his surrender on October 17, 1777.
The town where John Burgoyne surrendered to Haratio Gates after he surrounded him on October 17, 1777. Burgoyne was forced to surrender because he had been short on supplies.
Joseph and Mary Brant
A Mohawk brother and sister who were among some members of the Iroquois Confederacy who allied themselves with the British, even though they had declared their neutrality on the Revolutionary War in 1776. This alliance was fatal to the Iroquois Confederacy that was already divided and weakened because only three of the Iroquois nations followed them in their support for the British.
George Rodgers Clark
He led a patriot expedition over the Appalachian Mountains and captured settlements in the Illinois country from the British and their Indian allies.
Thomas Sumter, Andrew Pickens, Francis Marion
Patriot guerrillas the constantly harassed the British, these men led them in their harrassments and were very resourceful fighters. They were also known as the "Swamp Fox."
Was the British Commander in the south, appointed by the new British General Clinton, who crushed a Patriot force under Horatio Gates on August 17, 1780.
Was Horatio Gates' replacement after congress recalled him. It was George Washington who chose him to be the replacement. He was one of the ablest of all the American generals of the time.
Where Clinton ordered Cornwallis to set up a defensive position because he feared that the southern army might be destroyed.
Commanded patriotic forces that retaliated against the Iriquios and Brants for raiding white settlements. So he led several raids on Indian settlements causing a lot of them to flee to Canada.
Aided in trying to threaten Quebec with Benidict Arnold. He was killed.
Count De Vergennes
France's foreign minister who wanted evidence America could win before he backed them. After getting news of Saratoga, that was enough. He was persuaded by Ben Franklin. And also partially only agreed because he wanted Britian to weaken
Americas most important ally. Provided money and a navy.
Sir Henry Clinton
Replaced the unsuccesfull William Howe and moved the army from pennsylvania back to new york
Admiral de Grasse
helped in yorktown battle by taking a french fleet with additional american-french troops to the york river.
succeeded Lord North as prime minister after Cornwallis surrendered at yorktown.
a free black, who was executed after white authorities learned of his eleborate plans for a slave uprising.
Judith Sargent Murray
leading essayist that believe girls and boys' minds were just as good so both should have equal right to education.
Famed leader of the Miami that in 1790 and 1791 defeated the United States' forces in two major battles. The second of which was on November 4, 1791, where 630 white Americans died in fighting at the Wabash River. Efforts to negotiate a settlement failed because of the Miami's insistence that no treaty was possible unless it forbade white settlement west of the Ohio River.
Anthony Wayne & Battle of Fallen Timbers
He was the cause of the resumption of negotiations with the Miami after he led about 1,000 soldiers into the Ohio Valley in 1794 and defeated the Indians in a battle.
Treaty of Greenville
A year after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the Miami signed this. It ceded substantial new lands to the United States in exchange for a formal acknowledgment of their claim to the territory they had managed to retain. This was the first time that the new federal government recognized the sovereignty of Indian nations; in doing so, it was affirming that Indian lands could be ceded by only the tribes themselves. This hard-won assurance, however, proved a frail protection against the pressure of white expansion.
When the possibility that the United States would not prospect and default in their obligations arose it brought to the fore a group of leaders who would play a crucial role in the shaping of the Republic for several decades. He was the head of the Confederation's treasury.
Was Robert Morrison's, the head of the Confederation's treasury, young protégé.
Was called up by Robert Morris, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and others. It called for a 5% duty on imported goods to be levied by Congress and used to fund the debt. Many Americans feared that this impost would concrete too much financial power in Morris and his allies in Philadelphia. Congress failed to approve the impost in 1781 and 1783.
Daniel Shays and Shays Rebellion
was a former captain in the Continental Army, whom dissidents in the Connecticut Valley and the Berkshire Hills of Massachusetts rallied behind because they were upset farmers who were going into debt with all the taxes. He issued a set of demands that included paper money, tax relief, a moratorium on debts, and the abolition on the imprisonment for debt. During the summer of 1776, the Shaysites focused on preventing the collection of debts, private or public, and sometimes even used force to keep courts from sitting and sheriffs from selling confiscated property. In Boston, men of the legislature said that Shay and his men were rebels and traitors. So when winter came, he sent the rebels to advance on Springfield to seize weapons from the arsenal there. Militiamen were sent out from Boston to confront them. In January 1787, the army met Shays's band and dispersed his ragged troops. This was known as Shays Rebellion and it was a failure except in the fact that is produced awareness to the aggrieved farmers.
Was another principal leader of the Massachusetts farmers who also sent rebels to advance on Springfield to seize weapons from the arsenal there.
John Jay, Ben Franklin, John Adams
The three principals of the American diplomats who where in France and talked informally with British emissaries.
Treaty of Paris 1783
The final treaty ending the Revolutionary War that was signed September 3, 1783. The agreement remarkably favored the United States. It provided a clear-cut recognition of independence and a large, though ambiguous, cession of territory to the new nation, it was from the southern boundary of Canada to the northern boundary of Florida and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. The Americans celebrated as the last of the British occupation forces embarked from New York.
Chief Dragging Canoe
The leader of the Cherokee in the western Carolinas and Virginia who launched a series of attacks on outlying white settlements in the summer of 1776. Patriotic militias responded in great force, ravaging Cherokee lands and forcing the chief and many of his followers to flee west across the Tennesse River.
Remember the Ladies
The famous words written by Abigail Adams to her Husband John Adams in 1775. She talks about how she thinks that in the new code of laws being written that the men should be more favorable and generous to women than their ancestors were. Abigail was also calling for new protection against abusive and tyrannical men.
A political system in which all power came from the people, rather than from some surpreme authority (such as a king). This was the government that the Americans agreed on and its success depended on the nature of its citizenry. If the population consisted of sturdy, independent property owners imbued with civic virtue, then the republic could survive. If it consisted of a few powerful aristocrats and a great mass of dependence workers, then it would be in danger. From this came the ideal of the small freeholder was basic to the American political ideology.
Statue of Religious Liberty
Was enacted in 1786 in Virginia, and written by Thomas Jefferson. This called for the complete separation of church and state. It was drawn up because even though most Americans believed that church should play some role in government, they did not wish to give special privalages to any particular domination.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Became about in 1787 because of the criticisms of old policies, it was a new law governing western settlement. It created a single Northwest Territory out of the lands north of the Ohio; the territory could be divided subsequently into between three and five territories. It also specified a population of 60,000 as a minimum for statehood, guaranteed freedom of religion and the right to trial by jury to residents of the Northwest, and prohibited slavery throughout the territory.