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Crack cocaine is _____ rather than _____.

smoked, injected.

Cocaine is most potent when _____.

injected

The most popular route for administering freebase cocaine is ___________.

smoking

When cocaine is snorted, plasma levels peak at ____ and the drug may persist in plasma for up to ______.

30-60 minutes, 6 hours

When cocaine is smoked, effects peak at ____ and last for about _____.

5 minutes, 30 minutes

Cocaine exerts its effects by ________.

blockading the presynaptic transporter

Cocaine has a half-life in plasma of about ____

50 minutes

Cocaine is metabolized by ______

enzymes in liver and plasma

Cocaine can be detected in the brain for up to ____ and in the urine for up to _____

8 hours, 12 hours

The major metabolite of cocaine is _______

an inactive compound, benzoylecgonine (BE)

Cocaine's metabolite can be detected in the hair of long-term users for up to _____

3-4 months after use

Concurrent use of cocaine and alcohol forms the metabolite ________

cocaethylene

Cocaethylene acts as a ________ to potentiate the euphoric effect of cocaine.

presynaptic dopamine reuptake transporter

The half-life of cocaethylene is about _____

150 minutes

Cocaine is metabolized into an _______ metabolite.

inactive

Cocaine is the only drug that has these three characteristics:

local anesthetic, vasoconstrictor, psychostimulant

Cocaine potentiates synaptic actions of _____ and _____

dopamine, serotonin

Increased dopamine levels (as a result of cocaine use) in _____ account for euphoric effects

Nucleus accumbens

Serotonin probably doesn't have significant effect on rewarding effects of cocaine; _____ has a bigger role

Dopamine

Physiological responses to cocaine include:

increased alertness, motor hyperactivity, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, hypertension, pupillary dilation, increased body temperature

Psychological effects of cocaine include ______ and last about _____.

euphoria, enhanced self-consciousness, boastfulness; 30 minutes

After using cocaine, a milder state of euphoria and anxiety may last ______

60-90 minutes

High doses of cocaine can cause ______

anxiety, sleep deprivation, hypervigilance, paranoia, aggression, homicidality: toxic paranoid psychosis

A toxic dose of cocaine is about ____ per kilogram of body weight

2 milligrams

Cocaine abuse during pregnancy can indirectly cause ____________ due to constriction of the mother's blood vessels.

premature birth, respiratory distress, bowel and cerebral infarctions, microcephaly, seizures

Cocaine abuse during pregnancy can (directly) cause:

organ toxicity, lesions, seizures, SIDS

Cocaine can cause acute ______, which disrupts the blood-brain barrier

hyperthermia

Drugs that substitute for cocaine act as either direct or indirect _______ ________.

dopaminergic agonists

Drugs used to treat cocaine addiction include ______ and ________.

topiramate, lamotrigine

______ _______ like rimonabant may also be effective anti-craving drugs

cannabinoid antagonists

_____ is an irreversible inhibitor of GABA transaminase, which has anti-craving effects.

Vigabatrin

Amphetamine's effects like vasoconstriction, tachycardia, hypertension, and restlessness are the result of increased __________.

presynaptic release of dopamine and norepinephrine.

Which neurotransmitter do the amphetamines mimic?

epinephrine

Amphetamines directly stimulate postsynaptic ________ receptors.

catecholamine

Amphetamines are FDA-approved to treat _______ and ________.

narcolepsy, ADHD

Increased psychomotor activity as a result of amphetamine use follows stimulation of dopamine receptors in the ________ system, including the _______ ________.

mesolimbic system, nucleus accumbens

The stereotypical high-dose amphetamine effect of repetition of meaningless acts involves _____ neurons in the ______ ________.

dopamine, basal ganglia

Amphetamine metabolites are detectable in urine for up to ____.

48 hours

Studies show that low doses of _______ can improve cognitive speed and concentration.

amphetamines (Adderall)

Withdrawal from amphetamine use is ________ compared to withdrawal from opioid and barbiturate use.

less severe

_____ refers to the smokable form of methamphetamine

"ice"

Methamphetamine has a half-life of about _______.

12 hours

After smoking ice, about 60% of the methamphetamine is broken down in the _____.

liver

Loss of volume in the ______ following chronic meth use accounts for persistent mood and memory problems

hippocampus

Meth _____ brain temperature, which accounts for BBB disruption, edema, and pathological injuries.

raises

Ephedrine is found in nature in ________

ma-huang

Ephedrine acts by releasing the body's stores of ____________.

epinephrine

Pseudoephedrine is used in medicine to relieve ___________.

nasal congestion

_______ is a nonamphetamine behavioral stimulant used to treat ADHD.

methylphenidate (Ritalin)

______ is a CNS stimulant that treats ADHD by potentiating CNS dopaminergic transmission

Pemoline (Cylert)

_______ is a serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor that is structurally similar to an amphetamine

Sibutramine (Meridia)

______ is a cocaine-like psychostimulant that is used to treat narcolepsy, shift-work sleep disorder, and sleep apnea.

Modafinil (Provigil)

_____ can be chewed or brewed as a tea, and exerts effects similar to amphetamines or cocaine.

khat

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