When cocaine is snorted, plasma levels peak at ____ and the drug may persist in plasma for up to ______.
30-60 minutes, 6 hours
Cocaine can be detected in the brain for up to ____ and in the urine for up to _____
8 hours, 12 hours
Cocaine's metabolite can be detected in the hair of long-term users for up to _____
3-4 months after use
Cocaethylene acts as a ________ to potentiate the euphoric effect of cocaine.
presynaptic dopamine reuptake transporter
Cocaine is the only drug that has these three characteristics:
local anesthetic, vasoconstrictor, psychostimulant
Increased dopamine levels (as a result of cocaine use) in _____ account for euphoric effects
Serotonin probably doesn't have significant effect on rewarding effects of cocaine; _____ has a bigger role
Physiological responses to cocaine include:
increased alertness, motor hyperactivity, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, hypertension, pupillary dilation, increased body temperature
Psychological effects of cocaine include ______ and last about _____.
euphoria, enhanced self-consciousness, boastfulness; 30 minutes
High doses of cocaine can cause ______
anxiety, sleep deprivation, hypervigilance, paranoia, aggression, homicidality: toxic paranoid psychosis
Cocaine abuse during pregnancy can indirectly cause ____________ due to constriction of the mother's blood vessels.
premature birth, respiratory distress, bowel and cerebral infarctions, microcephaly, seizures
Drugs that substitute for cocaine act as either direct or indirect _______ ________.
Amphetamine's effects like vasoconstriction, tachycardia, hypertension, and restlessness are the result of increased __________.
presynaptic release of dopamine and norepinephrine.
Increased psychomotor activity as a result of amphetamine use follows stimulation of dopamine receptors in the ________ system, including the _______ ________.
mesolimbic system, nucleus accumbens
The stereotypical high-dose amphetamine effect of repetition of meaningless acts involves _____ neurons in the ______ ________.
dopamine, basal ganglia
Studies show that low doses of _______ can improve cognitive speed and concentration.
Withdrawal from amphetamine use is ________ compared to withdrawal from opioid and barbiturate use.
Loss of volume in the ______ following chronic meth use accounts for persistent mood and memory problems
Meth _____ brain temperature, which accounts for BBB disruption, edema, and pathological injuries.
______ is a CNS stimulant that treats ADHD by potentiating CNS dopaminergic transmission
_______ is a serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor that is structurally similar to an amphetamine
______ is a cocaine-like psychostimulant that is used to treat narcolepsy, shift-work sleep disorder, and sleep apnea.