unification of italy germany

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Mrs Martin April 15

bismarck

Iron chancelor of Germany

kulturkampf

Bismarck's "battle for civilization," in which his goal was to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above their allegiance to the Church

cavour

prime minister of Sardinia

Crimean War

Cavour gained no land, Joined Britain and France againstt Russia Sardinia gained French respect

Goals of Cavour

end Austria power in Italy; Annex Lombardy and Venetia

Mazzini

Giuseppe Mazzini was the first person that tried to unify all of Italy. created Young Italy

Risorgimente

reawakening of Italian unification

victor emanuel

1849-1878; became king of all of Italy in 1861 with help from Cavour & Garibaldi; nationalism

plombiere

secret agreement between France and Sardinia where France would help Sarinia if Austria attacked them. Sardinia would get Lombardy as pay

Hapsburgs

longest ruling dynasty

zemstovs

elected assemblies, and created by alexander II

reforms of Czar Alexander

jurry trials erased censorship, reduced military service, and encouraged industry

marxists

formed the german social deomcratic party

began social reforms

old age pensions, health insurance, accident insurence and good public schools

cavours goals

to end Austrian power in Italy, to annex Lombardy and Venetia

Cavour reforms Sardinia's economy by

improved argiculture, built railroads, supported free trade and ended local tariffs

Francis joseph

was 18 when he assumed the throne, and gave them constitution

Ottoman Empire

sick man of Europe

Serbs

Wanted Bosnia and Herzgevonia

the balkans

the powder keg of Europe

Alexander II

was assinated by terrorists

pogroms

violent mob attacks, persecuted the Jews

Liberals

Inspired by the enlightenment of the French revolution, believed in natural rights

reistag-

lower house appointed by rulers of German

bundesrat

upper house appointed by rulers of German states

william 1

kaiser of Germany

Germany

industrial giant of Europe, second to Britain

Napoleon Bonaparte

dissolved the holy roman empire and created the confederation on the Rhine

congress of Vienna

created German confederation weakened

zollerein

economic policy of Germany

Krupp Works

steel and weapons

August Thyssen

Steel

/carl /zeiss

optical equipment

Bloody Sunday

Nicholas II leaves palace; troops fired on crowd

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