What are some issues with self-esteem?
Modest correlations link self-esteem and school performance.
Depression lowers high self-esteem.
Self-esteem related to perceived physical appearance across life-span.
Persons with high self-esteem are
Increased with happiness.
Have greater initiative.
Prone to both pro-social and anti-social actions.
-Doing things for other people, things that are nice.
What is self-esteem in childhood and adolescents?
Accuracy of self-evaluations increases across elementary school years.
Majority of adolescents have positive self-image cross-culturally.
Girls' self-esteem is lower than boys' by middle school.
What is self-esteem in adult-hood?
Some researchers find drops in self-esteem in late adulthood; others don't.
Older adults with positive self-esteem:
May not see losses as negatively.
Decrease in knowledge-related goals.
Compare themselves to other older adults their age.
Increase in emotion-related goals.
What is psychosocial moratorium?
Gap between childhood security & adult autonomy.
Free of responsibilities, free to try out different identities.
What are some identity statuses?
What is Identity Diffusion?
Not experience crisis or made commitment.
Undecided about occupation & ideology, little interest.
What is Identity Moratorium?
Midst of a crisis but commitments are either absent or vaguely defined.
Seeking advice from career counselor.
What is Identity achievement?
Undergone a crisis, made commitment.
Changed major several times but finally got a degree in XYZ, planning on next educational step.
What is a commitment?
Individuals show personal investment in what they are going to do.
Can be along any dimension of identity.
____ is likely to improve a child's self esteem.
Designing an extrinsically-rewarding behavior program to encourage academic performance.
Sometimes Kianna is angry that her parents will not let her date whom she pleases. Other times she is upset because they do not spoil her like they do her younger siblings. Kianna's mixed feelings are an example of Erkinson's:
An adolescent who is experimenting with different vocational possibilities is experiencing what psychologist James Marcia terms an identity:
According to Marcia, the part of identity development in which individuals show personal investment in what they are going to do is: