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Functions of the Urinary system - give 5

Adjust blood volume & pressure
Regulate plasma ion concentrations
Stabilize blood pH
Conserve nutrients
Remove drugs and toxiins from blood

Renal Physiology Overview rids the body of organic waste products - give 3

Urea
Creatinine
Uric acid

Renal physiology overview of the three processes

Filtration
Reabsorption
secretion

Urea

by-product of acid digestion and is the largest product of amino acids breakdown in the liver

creatinine

by-product of creatine phosphate in muscle

uric acid

by-product of RNA digestion fromn nucleotides being broken down.

Filtration

takes place in the glomerulus in the renal corpusal
- it is the movement of small solutes and water from the glomerulus to the capsular space (bowman's space)

reabsorption

PCT and Loop of Henle
removal of solutes and fluids from the tubular fluid of the nephron

secretion

DCT
transport of solutes and fluid to the tubular fluid in the nephron.

Filtration at the renal corpuscle anatomy

afferent arteriole
glomerulus
efferent arteriole
juxtaglomerular complex

afferent arteriole

is the first arteriole that enters and brings blood to the glomerulus nextwork of capillaries

glomerulus

filtration to a sterile product occurs here

efferent arteriole

is the exiting arteriole from the glomerulus

juxtaglomerular complex

junction of afferent arteriole and distal convoluted tubule that secretes renin (mesangial cells) when glomerular blood pressure falls - this is an endocrine response

Filtration at the renal corpuscle the glomerular capsule

collects filtrate in the glomerular space

There are two layers of the glomerular capsule - the parietal and the visceral layer that has what type of cells?

podocytes

parietal layer

forms the outer capsule

visceral layer

is on the glomerular surface

podocytes

wrap glomerulus and help form filtration slits witht heir "feet" pedicels

filtration slits

pedicels of the podocytes.

mesangal cells

control capillary diameter and blood flow

filtration at the renal corpuscle are 3 filtration membranes

fenestrated glomerular capillaries
dense layer
filtration slits form podocytes pedicels connecting and making the slits

how much blood flows through the kidney in a minute

25% or 1.25 Liters

Filtration at the renal corpuscle factors controlling glomerular filtration are 4 of them

GHP (glomerular hydrostatic pressure)
Capsular hydrostatic pressure
BCOP (blood colloid osmotic pressure)
CsHP (capsulare hydrostatic pressure)

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

GHP

GHP has ___________ than other capillaries - presssure

higher
(due to the size of the capillaries continue to decrease in the glomerulus)

Glomerular hydrstatic pressure (GHP) favors filtration at what pressure gradient?

50mm Hg

Blood colloid osmotic pressure

BCOP

Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) concentration of pressure is at

25mm Hg and opposes filtration

Capsular hyrostatic pressure

CsHP opposes filtration in the glomerular filtration at 15mm Hg

glomerular filtration Rate (GFR) in each kidney is by the minute

6 m squared or 64 sq. ft of filtration surface
125 ml/min (180 L/d) filtered and 99% is reabsorbed - or 25% of the blood is filtered x min.

GFR is critical to maintain @ normal filtration rate

amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys/mine

GFR are adjusted by Local control called

autoregulation
(Gomerular filtration rate) GFR

Glomerular filtration rate is also controled by a central response of the

endocrine response and neural response (ANS)

Auto regulation is the local response with 2 central responses

Page 862 ***know this

Endocrine response is

initiated by the juxtaglomerular complex

neural response is intiated by

an autonomic nervous system control p. 862

reabsorption mainly occurs in the

PCT

PCT

proximal convoluted tuble

PCT

reabsorption of 99% of the glucose, amino acids,and other nutrients

PCT reabsorption is electrolytes (6)

Na+
K+
HCO3-
Mg2+
PO4 3-
So4 2-

The PCT absorbes approx 60% o f the water

108 L

osmosis

higher concentration to lower concentration

Resabsorption and secretion in the tubules

Only 15 - 20% of the initial filtate reaches the DCT

More absorption and secretion occurs in the DCT

of the tubules

NA+/K+pump is responsible for the

reabsortion of Na+ and Secretes K+

Na+/H+ pump is responsible

to reabsorb Na+/ Secretes H+

ANP : produced by the heart for

if the baroreceptors show too high blood pressure and triggers the opposite affect of the renin/ADH/aldosterone.

Thin descending limb of the nephron loop and collecting duct function

absorbs water through osmosis

Thin descending limb of the nephron loop

is a tubular fluid solute concentration increases --

Thick ascending limb

note thick

Thick ascending limb actively reabsorbs Na+ and Cl- but is _____________ to _______________

impermeable; water

Thick ascending limb tubular fluid solute concentration __________

decreases

Countercurrent muliplication is produced by the

tubular fluid solute concentration decrease -- check this out in book. . It is the opposite directional flow with the Na and Cl- pumps causing the descending to respond to the interstitial fluid causing a reverse response of fluids moving in opposite directions

countercurrent multiplication

countercurrent - fluid moving in opposite directions

multiplication

effect increases with fluid movement of the countercurrent multiplication.

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