Functions of the Urinary system - give 5
Adjust blood volume & pressure
Regulate plasma ion concentrations
Stabilize blood pH
Remove drugs and toxiins from blood
Renal Physiology Overview rids the body of organic waste products - give 3
Renal physiology overview of the three processes
by-product of acid digestion and is the largest product of amino acids breakdown in the liver
by-product of creatine phosphate in muscle
by-product of RNA digestion fromn nucleotides being broken down.
takes place in the glomerulus in the renal corpusal
- it is the movement of small solutes and water from the glomerulus to the capsular space (bowman's space)
PCT and Loop of Henle
removal of solutes and fluids from the tubular fluid of the nephron
transport of solutes and fluid to the tubular fluid in the nephron.
Filtration at the renal corpuscle anatomy
is the first arteriole that enters and brings blood to the glomerulus nextwork of capillaries
filtration to a sterile product occurs here
is the exiting arteriole from the glomerulus
junction of afferent arteriole and distal convoluted tubule that secretes renin (mesangial cells) when glomerular blood pressure falls - this is an endocrine response
Filtration at the renal corpuscle the glomerular capsule
collects filtrate in the glomerular space
There are two layers of the glomerular capsule - the parietal and the visceral layer that has what type of cells?
forms the outer capsule
is on the glomerular surface
wrap glomerulus and help form filtration slits witht heir "feet" pedicels
pedicels of the podocytes.
control capillary diameter and blood flow
filtration at the renal corpuscle are 3 filtration membranes
fenestrated glomerular capillaries
filtration slits form podocytes pedicels connecting and making the slits
how much blood flows through the kidney in a minute
25% or 1.25 Liters
Filtration at the renal corpuscle factors controlling glomerular filtration are 4 of them
GHP (glomerular hydrostatic pressure)
Capsular hydrostatic pressure
BCOP (blood colloid osmotic pressure)
CsHP (capsulare hydrostatic pressure)
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
GHP has ___________ than other capillaries - presssure
(due to the size of the capillaries continue to decrease in the glomerulus)
Glomerular hydrstatic pressure (GHP) favors filtration at what pressure gradient?
Blood colloid osmotic pressure
Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) concentration of pressure is at
25mm Hg and opposes filtration
Capsular hyrostatic pressure
CsHP opposes filtration in the glomerular filtration at 15mm Hg
glomerular filtration Rate (GFR) in each kidney is by the minute
6 m squared or 64 sq. ft of filtration surface
125 ml/min (180 L/d) filtered and 99% is reabsorbed - or 25% of the blood is filtered x min.
GFR is critical to maintain @ normal filtration rate
amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys/mine
GFR are adjusted by Local control called
(Gomerular filtration rate) GFR
Glomerular filtration rate is also controled by a central response of the
endocrine response and neural response (ANS)
Auto regulation is the local response with 2 central responses
Page 862 ***know this
Endocrine response is
initiated by the juxtaglomerular complex
neural response is intiated by
an autonomic nervous system control p. 862
reabsorption mainly occurs in the
proximal convoluted tuble
reabsorption of 99% of the glucose, amino acids,and other nutrients
PCT reabsorption is electrolytes (6)
The PCT absorbes approx 60% o f the water
higher concentration to lower concentration
Resabsorption and secretion in the tubules
Only 15 - 20% of the initial filtate reaches the DCT
More absorption and secretion occurs in the DCT
of the tubules
NA+/K+pump is responsible for the
reabsortion of Na+ and Secretes K+
Na+/H+ pump is responsible
to reabsorb Na+/ Secretes H+
ANP : produced by the heart for
if the baroreceptors show too high blood pressure and triggers the opposite affect of the renin/ADH/aldosterone.
Thin descending limb of the nephron loop and collecting duct function
absorbs water through osmosis
Thin descending limb of the nephron loop
is a tubular fluid solute concentration increases --
Thick ascending limb
Thick ascending limb actively reabsorbs Na+ and Cl- but is _____________ to _______________
Thick ascending limb tubular fluid solute concentration __________
Countercurrent muliplication is produced by the
tubular fluid solute concentration decrease -- check this out in book. . It is the opposite directional flow with the Na and Cl- pumps causing the descending to respond to the interstitial fluid causing a reverse response of fluids moving in opposite directions
countercurrent - fluid moving in opposite directions
effect increases with fluid movement of the countercurrent multiplication.
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