France's social and political structure that places the king at the top and three estates below him. Was in place before the revolution.
King Louis XVI
Absolute monarch of France at the start of the French Revolution. Overthrown when the French Republic was declared and then executed, along with his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette, during the Reign of Terror.
Wife of Louis XVI; was unpopular for her extravagance and opposition to reform; she was guillotined along with her husband
The first class of French society made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.
The second class of French society made up of the nobility
Included about 98 percent of the population. At the top there was the bourgeoisie, or middle class. The bulk were urban workers.
educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution
Petty laborers and laboring poor. Wore pants, not knee breeches. Became a major political group in revolutionary France.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
markedly new or introducing radical change
He was a lawyer and a member of the National Convention. Helped France's financial situation through the concept of planned economy (setting price limits on certain products). His efforts eventually led to the fall of France and take-over by Napoleon Bonaparte. His death ended the Reign of Terror.
instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles
a revolution whose aim is to reverse the changes introduced by a previous revolution
Reign of Terror
the period when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Overthrew French Directory and became emperor of the French. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Admiral Horatio Nelson
Royal Navy tactician and leader; was the most innovative naval leader of his time, and is best known for his victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. He repeatedly foundered Napoleon's plans for naval victory in Egypt, the New World, and invasion of England.
Sudden seizure of political power in a nation. Usually by a small group.
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon