Rebirth or reawakening
When did the Renaissance begin and end?
14C to 17C
What was the center of the Renaissance?
Why was Italy the center of the Renaissance?
center of commerce, culture, and art; geographic benefits; art and painting; opera; architecture and literature of the old world
Where did the Renaissance later spread to?
England, Spain, France, Germany
What happened from the 14C on?
Break away from the restrictive ideas of the Middle Ages; spread of humanism
What happened during the Renaissance in Italy?
Painting; sculpture; proscenium arch; Leonardo da Vinci; Michelangelo; David; Mona Lisa; The Last Supper; rise of the middle class (merchants)
What year was the printing press invented?
1450 by Johannes Gutenbert
What is opera?
Followed Greek tragic style with music; text was second to music
Theater during the Renaissance
Neoclassical rules were formulated; tragedy should end sadly, comedy should end happily; violence; chorus; no supernatural characters; improv; proscenium arch; theaters went inside
Money for theater?
Middle class provided money for the development of theater
Teatro Olympico at Vicenza (1580)
similar to Roman theater in Orange, France
Teatro Farnese at Parma (1618)
First proscenium arch; standard for over 300 years; stage behind
based on improv; 1550-1750; ten members; half masks; stock physical gags; most like the Roman comedies; stock characters with recognizable costumes
stock physical gags
Elders; Minola Baptista and Gremio, Vincentio
Harlequin clown; Fumio
Old miser, goes after younger girls, horny; Gremio
Young lovers, will they or won't they; Lucentio and Bianca
Bold braggert wants sex; Petrucchio
Upper tier servant of shopkeeper; Tranio
Punch, physically disfigured
Middle class, usually stutterer
Taming of the Shrew
American Conservatory Theater in San Francisco; set in Padua; patriarchy, battle of the sexes
Also called the Elizabethan Period for Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603)
Amateur linguist, language, literature, exploration
English Renaissance Playwrights
Marlowe (Doctor Faustus); Webster (The Duchess of Malfi); Shakespeare
37 plays - 10 history, 12 tragedy, 15 comedy; wrote in dramatic verse; iambic pentameter
Lord Chamberlain's Men
25 members; best acting company; Shakespeare worked for them for most of his life
The Globe Theater
Changed scenery, tiring house for actors and storage; groundlings; theater was mostly public; could seat 1500-3000 people
Carpenter of The Globe
Why were theaters outside of London?
To avoid censors
Could seat 600-750 people; indoor; lit with candles
Merchant of Venice
Portia and Bessanio
First Italy, then France; ballet
The Sun King; ruled for 72 years; loved theater, ballet, music
Known by Moliere; ballet, music, theater; Comedie Francaise (1680, 1689, 1770)
Civil war in England; theaters closed in 1642, reopened in 1660
Comedy of Manners
Influenced by Moliere and Commedia dell'Arte; witty dialogue, sexual intrigue, innuendo; women appeared on English stage
Who were the mercantile powers?
England and France; more money for the middle class
Age of Enlightenment
New developments in learning and philosophy
French for serious play; sentimental and melodramatic; ignored neoclassical requirements
Made fun of opera
The Beggar's Opera
1728 by John Gay; sex and violence; Macheath and Polly Peachum;
By Gilbert and Sullivan
Rebelled against formal declamation; long rehearsals; no spectators; actors on time; director responsible for all artistic decisions
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Not commercialized; long rehearsals; work as an ensemble; rules for movement; vocal technique; good behavior for actor's personal lives
What was the playwright or director trying to do? Did the artist succeed? Was it worth the doing?
Henrik Ibsen, August Strindberg, Anton Chekhov
Norwegian, A Doll House
Swede, Miss Julie
Russian; The Seagull; Uncle Vanya; Three Sisters; The Cherry Orchard
A Doll House
Most famous modern scene; Torvald and Nora; new ending used in Germany