What are the two meanings of bias?
1) if it detects the innate and performance differences caused by cultural experiences
*E.g., when European immigrants were tested about their new culture; they failed and were considered feeble-minded
2) If the test is invalid, because it only predicts future behavior for some groups of test takers.
*E.g., if the SAT only predicts future behavior for men and not women.
Define stereotype threat
A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on the negative stereotype
Info on stereotype threat.
Expectancy influencing results. E.g., women doing less well on a test until they're told that women normally do just as well as men... these women believed that women do not do as well as men on math, so they fell victim to the stereotype threat and didn't do as well.