Byzantine Empire

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viking who was invited to rule Novgorod

Rurik

Slavic territories along Dnieper River

Kievan Rus

came up with an alphabet that helped convert Slavs to Christianity

Cyril

people who attend church

Laity

Serbs, Croats, Slovenes

South Slavs

battles to protect Christianity

Crusades

center of religion, government, and culture in Russia

Kremlin

when the church split between Eastern and Western

Schism

major industry in Constantinople

Silk

worked to improve women's position in Byzantine Empire

Theodora

1st country to officially adopt Christianity

Armenia

landowning nobles in Russia

Boyar

Slavic people who were Muslims

Bosnians

chemicals used in war that explode

Greek Fire

Islamic group who took over Constantinople

Ottoman Turks

tried to unite Eastern and Western Roman Empire

Justinian

center of Orthodox church after fall of Constantinople

Muscovy

elaborate, decorated books

illustrated manuscripts

where women went to live to dedicate themselves to God

convent

conquered Byzantine Empire

Ottoman Turks

brought Russian principalities under his control

Ivan III

also known as Mongols

Tatars

conquered most of Russia

Mongols

large, grassy, semiarid land of Euasia

steppe

study of religious questions

Theology

farmers chop down trees and burn stumps; ashes used as fertilizer

slash and burn agriculture

colored tiles, glass, stones used to make a picture

mosaic

religious portraits, paintings, mosaics, etc.

icons

hired to protect trade routes

vikings

place where monks lived in seclusion dedicating themselves to God

Monastery

church in Constantinople

Hagia Sophia

an immense semiarid grass-covered plain gound in southeastern Europe and Siberia

steppe

married the niece of the last Byzantine emperor in AD 1472 and claimed the title tsar (caesar) and claimed himself Sovereign of All Russia

Ivan III

a member of the council of landowners and wealthy merchants who assisted princes in early Russia

boyar

longest river in Europe, it begins in the Valdai Hills and flows 2,290 miles southeast to the Caspian Sea, cutting across the steppes and forests of eastern Europe

Volga River

the western penninsula of Asia, lying between the Black and Mediterranean Seas

Asia Minor

a separation of the church in AD 1054 that created the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox church in the East

schism

lay members of a church (not ordained)

laity

became Grand Prince in AD 980 and brought Eastern Orthodoxy to Kievan Russia

Vladimir

representation or picture of a sacred Christian person, the picture or statue itself regarded as sacred

icons

a person speaking the Turkic language, and from the area of Asia Minor

Turks

strategic city of the Byzantine Empire lovated on the penninsula between Europe and Asia, and the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea; birthplace of the Eastern Orthodox religion

Constantinople

an emperor of early Russia

tsar

a river flowing 1,420 miles south into the Black Sea and the 3rd longest in Europe, it cuts across the steppes and thick forests of eastern Europe

Dnieper River

the Turks from central Asia who converted to Islam, they degeated the Byzantines at Manzikert

Seljuk

the emperor who ordered all icons to be removed from churches in AD 726

Leo III

Alexander Nevsky became ruler of this small town and expanded the influence of Muscovy and which eventually replaced Kiev as the capital of Russia

Moscow

the Emperor Who Never Sleeps, he ruled the Byzantine Empire at its height

Justinian

located high on a bluff on the Dnieper River; in AD 880, this became the 1st capital of Russia

Kiev

a missionary who invented an alphabet for the Slavic languages in order to spread the Orthodox Christianity

Cyril

Roman emperor that built Constantinope in 330 AD in the very strategic penninsula between Europe and Asia, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea

Constantine

the prince of Novgorod who degeated the invading Swedes in AD 1240

Alexander Nevsky

people, such as priests and bishops, ordained for religious services

clergy

a penninsula in southeastern Europe bounded by the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas to the east and the Adriatic and Ionian Seas to the west and the Black Sea to the east

Balkan Penninsula

an arm of the Mediterranean Sea extending between Italy and the Balkan Penninsula

Adriatic Sea

supportive wife of Justinian and an active participant in government, she advocated that a wide had the right to own land equal to her wealth at betrothal

Theodora

viking leader who accepted the invitation of the Slavs to instill orfer in the area called Russia

Rurik

what was the Byzantine Empire known as?

the new Rome

included most of the Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt

Byzantine Empire

many different types of people and cultures

multicultural society

What language did people in the empire speak?

Greek

Revolt of taxpayers in 532 AD- Theodora encouraged Justinian to remain and assert his power

Nika Revolt

Who conquered Italy, North Africa, and Spain, but eventually lost the land?

Justinian

during what period/what:
-appointed a commission to codify or classify the Roman Empire's laws
-got rid of outdated laws, simplified many, and got the rest in categories?

Justinian's Rule (code of law)

what was the center of social life?

family

what kind of society did the Byzantine Civilization have?

hierarchy

a person could move from one group to another

hierarchy

temporary rulers

regents

what were most Byzantines?

famers, herders, laborers

what was the main base of economy?

trade

What was the natural center for trade?

Constantinople

study of religious questions

Theology

religious community for men (monks)

monasteries

religious community for women (nuns)

convent

Who were the two brothers that were sent to convert Slavic people?

Cyril and Methodius

What alphabet is used today by Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, and Serbs?

Cyrillic alphabet

what was the subject of art?

religion

who conquered the Middle East and North Africa?

Arabs

who conquered Eastern Byzantine Empire?

Persian

who conquered the Balkans?

Slavs

Where were the Seljuk Turks from?

Central Asia

What religion were the Seljuk Turks?

Muslims

Who weakens the Byzantines?

Seljuk Turks

When were Christians persuaded by Venetians to attack Constantinople?

4th Crusade in 1204

Who controlled Constantinople and its trade for 50 years?

Venetians

Who invaded from Central Asia and attacked the Byzantine Empire?

Ottoman Turks

When did the Ottoman Turks attack and conquer Constantinople?

1453

When was the beginning of Ottoman Empire?

1453-1917

How many years did the Byzantine Empire last for?

over 1,000 years (476-1453)

Largest group living in Eastern Europe

Slavs

Major trade routes for Eastern Slavs

Black Sea, Dnieper River, and Baltic Sea

city on Dnieper River trade route- mother of Eastern Slavic cities

Kiev

rulers of Kiev

Grand Princes

territory ruled by a prince

principalities

What were the Grand princes duties?

administer justice and defend frontiers

represented all free adult male citizens

assembly

who sent observers to learn about monotheistic religion?

Vladimir

mass baptism to Eastern Orthodoxy

989 ACE

What was part of the importance of Byzantine Architecture?

onion shaped domes

Who's reign was height of Kievan culture?

Yaroslav

mongol invaders captured and destroyed Kiev

1240

Who conquered most of Russia, except for Novgorod and ruled for 2 centuries?

Mongols

Expanded lands through conquest and marriage

Moscow

most powergul Eastern Slavic in:

1350

Rule of Ivan III

1480

known as Ivan the Great

Ivan III

What was the Russian Empire also known as?

the third Rome

Moscow became center of Eastern Orthodox church in:

1453

Ivan III married niece of last Byzantine Emperor in:

1472

In Moscow, the churches used _____ in worship and writing

Russian

A great example of Russian architecture is:

the Kremlin fortress in Moscow

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