The key to a successful Calorie Restricted diet is to
consume a low calorie, high nutrient-dense diet
Obsessive-compulsive, perfectionist, socially inhibited, compliant, and emotionally restrained describe personality traits of ________
The electrolyte imbalances that are often seen with eating disorders can result in
irregular heartbeat and heart failure
Research has shown that there is no association between fetal exposure to famine and future risk of chronic disease.
The inner portion of the zygote that implants in the uterine lining is called the ________
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding calcium needs during pregnancy?
The extra demand for calcium during pregnancy has been shown to cause bone demineralization and increase the risk of future fractures.
Fetal demand for iron is highest during the ________
During the first six months of lactation, the daily caloric needs of the mother increase by ________ calories as compared to prepregnancy levels.
The fluid needs of adolescents are higher than those of children.
To avoid dehydration, toddlers should be offered fruit juice at every meal.
Which of the following is NOT an effective long-term treatment for obesity?
Generally, surgery to treat obesity is not recommended unless an individual's BMI is ________
Breastfeeding suppresses ovulation and can be used as a reliable form of contraception.
Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for pregnant women.
Most of the members of the Caloric Restriction Society and the CRONies are males.
The process by which a fetus's metabolism, hormone production, and other physiological processes shift in response to inadequate energy intake during pregnancy is called the ________ theory.
Research has clearly shown that the media's portrayal of body image is a direct cause of eating disorders
All of these will help you avoid purchasing fraudulent or dangerous supplements EXCEPT
purchasing products labeled "natural."
Existing evidence suggests that only 5% of obese people are successful at long-term weight loss.
Vitamin C impairs the absorption of iron
False, it enhances the absorption
Milk is a good source of riboflavin.
Adolescent acne is caused by
All of the following can contribute to chronic dehydration in elderly individuals EXCEPT
perspiration increases as we age.
Janie is four years old. What serving size of green beans would you recommend for her?
All of the following foods pose a choking hazard for children EXCEPT
In today's society, prejudice toward overweight people still seems to be widely practiced and acceptable.
Substances that lead to birth defects are called ________
The stimulus that is needed for continued and sustained production of breast milk is
Inadequate intakes of ________ during pregnancy are associated with neural tube defects in the fetus.
Recommended weight gain during pregnancy is based on the ________
mother's weight before becoming pregnant.
Obesity in children is defined as having a BMI at or above the ________ percentile
All of the following are physiological changes that typically occur with aging EXCEPT decreased
Peak bone mass is typically achieved in ________
late teens and early twenties
Federal guidelines in the U.S. specify that school lunches must contain no more than ________ percent of the total calories from saturated fat
The B-complex vitamins provide a good source of energy for the body.
Because the absorption of dietary iron varies greatly, the RDA for iron is not adequate for most people.
The loss of tooth enamel seen in bulimia nervosa is due to the insufficient intake of calcium
Children under the age of 1 should not be given cow's milk
a woman suffers from gestational diabetes she has an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life
Which of the following is NOT symptomatic of anorexia nervosa?
secretive consumption of large amounts of food in a short period of time
Which of the following BEST explains why individuals with anorexia nervosa have an increased risk for developing osteoporosis?
decreased estrogen production
All of the following statements are true EXCEPT
All supplements sold in the U.S. must contain a U.S.P. (U.S. Pharmacopoeia) symbol
Approximately how long would a person's life be prolonged if he or she did not start consuming a Calorie Restricted diet until the age of 55 years?
Which of the following is FALSE concerning research conducted on subjects born during weather- and war-related famines in Africa?
Cardiovascular disease is now the second leading cause of death in adults
What is a multifactorial disease?
a disease that has many different causes
Gastric bypass surgery reduces food intake by ________
attaching the lower part of the small intestine to the stomach
Parents should force their children to eat healthy foods to avoid obesity
Limiting sugary sweets in children's diets is important only once their permanent teeth have erupted.
The offspring of mothers who experienced low pregnancy weight gain have an increased risk of obesity in adulthood.
The human body typically absorbs less than 20% of the iron consumed in the diet
If your sibling has or has had an eating disorder, it places you at a higher risk of developing an eating disorder.
Antioxidant supplements have consistently been shown to lower rates of death from heart disease and certain types of cancer.
Research suggests that there are lifelong consequences to any type of nutrient imbalance during pregnancy.
Unless a prescribed by a qualified practitioner, taking a single-nutrient supplement is not recommended because it ________
may quickly lead to a nutrient toxicity
In older adults, which of the following is a mineral important to a healthy immune system and wound healing?
The fastest growing age subgroup in the United States today is
greater than or equal to 85-year-olds
How much fat is recommended for a preschooler?
25-35% of total energy
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of a Calorie Restricted (CR) diet?
Calorie Restriction results in decreased fat mass and increased lean body mass
Which of the following is NOT a common life-long problem following surgery for morbid obesity?
increased resistance to infection
The energy needs of older adults are higher than those of younger adults.
Although considered an epidemic among U.S. adults, obesity rates in school-aged children have remained constant since the 1970s
Studies have shown that exposure of the fetus to famine in the first trimester of pregnancy resulted in a high risk of the development of ________ in adulthood
Which of the following does NOT describe a characteristic associated with muscle dysmorphia?
purging by the use of laxative and/or vomiting at least two times a day
Which of the following sports is frequently associated with its female athletes being at risk for developing the female athlete triad?
A normal-weight woman should gain approximately 25 to ________ pounds during pregnancy.
The hormones that prepare the breasts physically for lactation are estrogen and ________.
At birth, baby Ramon weighs 8 pounds. If his growth and development are normal, what would you expect Ramon to weigh at his first birthday?
It is suggested that ________ percent of neural tube defects could be prevented if all women of childbearing age consumed adequate amounts of folate or folic acid
Breastfed infants have a low risk of developing heart disease in life because breast milk is very low in cholesterol.
All cases of neural tube defects are directly related to a lack of folate consumption during pregnancy.
Adiposity rebound occurs between the ages of 5 and ________ years
Antioxidant supplements are not necessary and may actually be harmful.
Adequate folate consumption is the most critical during the last trimester of pregnancy.
The ideal nutritional strategy for optimizing health is to ________
eat a healthful diet containing a variety of whole foods
Currently, the best known treatment of eating disorders is
a team-management approach
All of the following describe characteristics of the female athlete triad EXCEPT
Poor maternal intake of calcium increases the risk of ________ in the adult offspring
The cartilage that is located at the end of long bones that closes when growth ceases is called the ________ plate.
The absorption of vitamin ________ increases in older adults.
Which of the following will NOT help establish healthful eating habits in toddlers?
Use food as a reward for healthful behaviors
Overweight in children is defined as having a BMI at or above the ________ percentile.
Approximately one-half to two-thirds of people who received obesity surgery do not experience long-term success.
The USDA recommends that pregnant women avoid all of the following foods EXCEPT
The point at which the ovum becomes fertilized by the sperm is ________.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all breastfed infants be given a ________ supplement to decrease the risk of developing rickets.
Adolescents need to consume four servings of dairy foods or calcium-fortified products daily to obtain the necessary calcium intake.
If a breastfeeding woman eats a well-planned, nutrient-dense diet she does not need to take supplements.
The hormones that prepare the breasts physically for lactation are estrogen and ________
Who is responsible for determining the safety and efficacy of any dietary supplement?
the manufacturer of the supplement
Obesity is NOT associated with an increased risk of
Maria is a 3-year-old toddler and weighs 34 pounds. How many grams of protein should she consume each day?
A reduced production of gastric secretions often seen in older adults can result in
a reduced absorption of calcium
Sodium needs during pregnancy are the same as for a non-pregnant adult woman
The growth spurt starts earlier in boys than in girls
Which of the following BEST describes why the body reduces nonvital body functions in untreated anorexia nervosa?
The body needs to conserve energy.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends the intake of fruit juice be limited to ________ fluid ounces per day for children 1-6 years of age.
Which of the following BEST describes the "Milk Matters" campaign?
government campaign to encourage teens to consume more milk and dairy foods
All of the following are characteristic of adolescent eating habits EXCEPT
regular consumption of three meals per day.
Due to the additional losses via the menstrual cycle, adolescent girls require more iron than do adolescent boys
Multivitamin/mineral supplements should never be recommended for preschoolers.
Female athletes who experience amenorrhea are at risk for developing osteoporosis
Which of the following birth defects has NOT been linked to maternal obesity?
Individuals suffering from a zinc deficiency should include more whole and enriched grains in their diets.
High zinc intakes can inhibit the absorption of copper
Recommendations for weight gain vary according to a woman's weight before pregnancy
Fetal demand for iron is highest during the ________
A low-birth-weight infant is one that weighs less than ________ pounds
Rich dietary sources of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) include ________
mackerel and salmon
Although promising, research that could precisely study and measure the benefits of a Calorie Restricted diet in humans may never be conducted because of logistical and ethical concerns
A dietary supplement would NOT contain
Studies have shown that the higher the body mass index is in childhood the greater the risk of developing insulin resistance in adulthood.
Why are newborn infants given a single injection of vitamin K?
The infant's intestinal bacteria are not yet able to synthesize vitamin K
Metabolic effects of CR reported in several human studies include all of the following EXCEPT _______
increased energy expenditure
Maria typically eats 2000 kcals per day. How many calories per day should she strive to consume if she wanted to safely lose one pound per week?
The total amount of energy needed per day for any given age is called the ________ energy requirement.
Which of the following is associated with the premature closure of the epiphyseal plate?
reduced activity level
Surgery is considered the last resort for morbidly obese people.
Iron-deficiency anemia is uncommon in young children
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the consequences of the following maternal nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy?
Maternal zinc deficiency has no known consequences in adult offspring.
Snaking between meals is developmentally and nutritionally appropriate for toddlers
the primary cause of gastrointestinal reflux and constipation during pregnancy is
relaxation of the smooth muscles
the RDA for _____ decreases as we age
on average, Americans have a life expectancy that extends into the ____
which of the following is NOT associated with binge-eating disorder?
Which of the following BEST explains why adolescents are more vulnerable to the unrealistic media images of the "perfect body" than are adults?
Adolescents are developing their personal identity.
Which of the following is NOT a risk in the offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy?
The majority of obese children will become healthy-weight adults.
Caffeine consumption during pregnancy is harmless to the fetus because it cannot cross the placenta.
What nutrient is added to municipal water supplies to promote healthy teeth formation?
What are dental caries?
Iodine is naturally found in many foods and beverages.
Which of the following would NOT be good advice to give to a parent regarding the introduction of solids to their six-month-old infant?
Add honey to cereal and fruit to improve infant acceptance of these new foods.
Which of the following hormones is referred to as the "let down" hormone?
In which trimester of pregnancy is the fetus the most vulnerable to teratogens?
Which of the following is NOT a factor that indicates an infant is ready to accept solid foods?
The infant has high stores of iron.
A Calorie Restricted diet (CR) is defined as a diet containing 1000 or fewer calories per day.
An eating disorder is a psychiatric condition.
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of breastfeeding for the infant?
The fat in breast milk is difficult for the infant to digest.
Because of a condition known as atrophic gastritis, older adults sometimes need to be given periodic injections of B12 to prevent anemia.
Eating disorders do not occur in adolescent boys.
Thiamin, consumed in excess, is toxic.
The negative impact of fetal exposure to malnutrition is worsened if followed by low nutrient intakes shortly after birth.
Blood is the only fluid tissue in the human body.
Adolescent food patterns are strongly influenced by all of these EXCEPT
Which of the following is NOT related to the increased iron needs in adolescence?
Iron utilization slows down.
All of the following are risk factors for Metabolic Syndrome EXCEPT
lower than normal bone density.
Which of the following is NOT an appropriate weight control recommendation for an overweight 11-year-old?
Decrease caloric intake by 1000 calories a day.
Frequent purging can result in rapid weight loss.
Why is it strongly recommended that infants NOT consume honey?
Honey contains spores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
Which of the following statements is FALSE
regarding vitamin B12 during pregnancy?
The RDA for vitamin B12 doubles during pregnancy.
Without adequate vitamin K, blood does not clot properly and bleeding problems can develop.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Engaging in at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity can promote longevity
Some of the earliest research on the fetal origins theory took place in ________ adults.
Which of the following fatty acids is critical to fetal brain and eye development?
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
During pregnancy what amount of alcohol consumption is considered safe?
Macrocytic anemia results from a deficiency of ________
For proper growth and development, toddlers should consume ________ percent of their total daily energy intake as fat.
All of the following are associated with developing toddlers' healthy eating habits EXCEPT
rewarding meal completion with dessert
High intake of fiber may be harmful in young children, as it may interfere with the absorption of nutrients.
In the elderly a ________ deficiency can lead to a decreased sense of taste and smell.
All of the following are associated with gestational diabetes EXCEPT
delivery of a low-birth-weight infant.
Once the placenta has formed, the fetus's and mother's blood supplies will co-circulate.
Maintaining an energy-restricted diet that is high in nutrients requires significant planning and preparation of most of your own meals.
Individuals suffering from binge-eating disorder and night-eating syndrome are often overweight.
Malnutrition decreases a man's fertility.
The average weight and height for a healthy newborn in the United States is ________ pounds and 18-22 inches long.
The only thing that will "cure" eclampsia is ________
delivery of the infant
Social factors that appear to influence obesity risk include all of the following EXCEPT
abnormal thyroid hormone levels
The nutrient needs of young boys and girls do not differ until about the age of 8 or 9 years.
Preliminary research studies suggest that a Calorie Restricted (CR) diet can improve metabolic measures of health in humans and, therefore, may be able to extend the human life span.
Research has identified the "eating disorder gene" as the major cause of eating disorders.
Growth acceleration in adolescence is primarily driven by
Federal guidelines specify that school lunches must provide ________ of the 1989 RDAs for protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, and energy.
Iron-deficiency anemia is uncommon in young children.
Non-heme iron is found in both animal- and plant-based foods.
Which of the following psychiatric disorders causes the most deaths among women?
The development of the ________ system is particularly dependent on adequate consumption of fat during the toddler years.
Which of the following is NOT a reason that vitamin D and calcium supplements are recommended for elderly individuals?
Absorption of calcium and vitamin D is reduced as we age.
Milk that is low in fat and produced first in a nursing session is known as ________
During the second and third trimesters, the caloric needs of a pregnant woman increase by 350 to ________ kilocalories per day.
Vitamin K deficiency is associated with an overgrowth of intestinal bacteria.
The fetal adaptation theory indicates that a fetus exposed to starvation or malnutrition goes into a survival mode. Which of the following is NOT a fetal physiological response in this situation?
The size and function of body organs, such as liver or kidneys, does not change.