Geology: Earthquakes (Third Exam)

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focus

The _____ is the source of the Earthquake.

waves

Energy is released in the form of _____.

faults

Earthquakes are usually associated with large fractures in the Earth's crust called ______

H.F. Reid

Who first described the mechanism for earthquakes?

Elastic rebound

Rocks on both sides of an existing fault are deformed by tectonic forces, rocks bend and store elastic energy are both components of what?

rebound, focus

Elastic _____ says that slippage at the weakest point (the _____) is an earthquake mechanism

aftershock

adjustments that follow a major earthquake often generate smaller earthquakes that are called

foreshocks

small earthquakes, called __________, often precede a major earthquake by days

fault creep

faults that exhibit slow, gradual displacement are said to have

stick-slip motion

What is the process called by which segments of faults store energy for periods of time to rupture in great earthquakes?

seismology

What is the study of earthquake waves?

seismographs

What instruments record seismic waves?

true

True or False? Seismographs work by recording the movement of the Earth in relation to a stationary mass of a rotating drum or magnetic tape.

surface waves

What kind of seismic waves travel along the outer part of the Earth?

surface waves

What kind of waves have these characteristics? Complex motion, cause great damage, greatest amplitude, slowest velocity, waves that have the greatest periods, and are often referred to as L waves

Body waves

What kind of seismic wave has two types?

Primary and Secondary

What are the two types of body waves?

primary waves

What kind of wave has push-pull ( compress and expand) motion?

primary

What kind of wave travels through solids, liquids, and gases?

volume

Primary waves change the ______ of rocks, which respond elastically.

Primary

Which kind of body wave travels faster? (1.7x faster)

secondary

What kind of body waves have a "shake" motion at right angles to their direction of travel.

secondary

Which kind of body waves travel only through solids?

greater

Secondary waves have a _______ amplitude than P waves.

shape

Secondary waves change the _____ of rocks through which they travel. Rocks respond elastically to this.

epicenter

The location on the surface directly above the focus

velocities

Epicenter is located using the difference in ________ of P and S waves.

three

How many stations are needed to locate an epicenter?

70

A shallow earthquake's foci is shallow if it is anywhere between the surface and __ kilometers

intensity

a measure of the degree of earthquake shaking at a given locale based on the amount of damage

magnitude

estimates the amount of energy released at the source of the earthquake

buildings

The modified Marcalli Intensity Scale was developed using California _______ as its standard

Richter

The _______ scale was based of the amplitude of the largest seismic wave recorded, accounts for the decrease in wave amplitude with increased distance.

2

Magnitudes lass than _.0 are not felt by humans

liquefaction

Unconsolidated materials saturated with water turn into a mobile fluid is known as ___________ of the ground

seiches

What is it called when the rhythmic sloshing of water in lakes/reservoirs cause waves that can weaken reservoir and cause damage?

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