the movement of water molecules across a cell membrane from areas of high concentration WATER to low areas of low WATER concentration
higher solute and lower water concentration
lower solute and higher water concentration
equal water and solute concentration
ideal enviroment is isotonic, it is maintained internally by
water in and cell burst
water out and shrivals up
osmotic regulation in marine invertebrates:
1. maintain an equal solute contentrationto sea water and 2. limited osmotic regulation
tolerate little chnages in salinity (spider crab)
tolerate a wider range of salinty (shore crab)
what type of enviroment do marine fish live in?
marin fish deal with
constant water loss and salt uptake by hypoosmotic regulation
marine fish must
drink water, produce a concentrated urine, and excrete salt through gills by active transport
freshwater fish live what type of enviorments?
freshwater fish must deal with
a constant salt and mineral loss and water uptake by hyperosmotic reugulation
freshwater fish must
drink limited water, produce diluted urine, and absorb salt through gills by active transport.
Terrestrial animals lose waster by
evaporation from breathing and body surfaces, excretion in urine and feces
terrestial animals replace water by
water in food, drinking, and metabloiuc water (cellular respiration
contractile vacuoles take up water from
osmosis, swelling, and then collapsing releasing excess water through an external pore
protonephridia in acoelomates (flatworms) and pseudocoelomates (nematodes and rotifers)
collect body fluids through collecting tubules and the action of a flame cell. Wastes are expelled through an excretory pore. CLOSED SYSTEM.
Metanephridia in eucoelomates such as molluscs and annelids are
more sophisticated with nephridia having two openings and being surrounded a network of blood vessels. fluid enters the nephrostome, and wastes is released through the nephridiopre. OPEN SYSTEM
antennal glands take a protein-free ultrafiltrate from the blood, and reabsorbs salts prior to excretion. closed system.
Malpighian tubules in insecets and spiders
operate in conjuction with the rectum to secrete insouluble uric acid. muscle contractions force fluid into the tubules. closed system.
Vertebrate kidneys functional
1.functional unit of the kidney is the nephron 2. has three physical functions: filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
The glomerulus in the nephron produces:
a protein -free filtration
in the nephron the proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs
60% of filtrate (water glucose, amino acids, and vitamins)
in the nephron, the descending limp of loop of henle is
permeable to water and impermeable to NaCl (increases NaCl concentration)
In the nephron the ascending limb of henle's loop reabsorbs
NaCl and is impermeable to water
In the nephron, the distal convoled tubule re-absorbs
NaCl and secretes potassium unde the control of aldosterone
In the nephron, the collelcting ducts permeability to water and urea is
collected by antidiuretic horomone
in the nehpron, blood pressure is
regulated in part by enzyme renin
What are ectotherms?
animals that lose heat as soon as they generate it. (most animals)
Ectotherms bodies temperature
is determined by the enviroment.
are animals that generate heat and retain enough metabolic heat to raise and stabilize body temperature (birds and mammals)
Behaviorbal adjustments in ectotherms for thermoregulation are
avoiding extreme conditions (burrowing)
Metabloic adjustments in ectotherms for thermoregulation are
keeping a steady metabolism in heat or cold
Adaption for hot environments for endotherms in thermoregulation are:
Fossorial behavior, noctural behavior, and evaporative cooling
adaption for cold environments for endotherms in thermogeneration is
decreased conductance and increased hear production, and huddling
what is decreased conductance in endotherms
more insulation reduced blood flow to skin
what is increaed head production in endotherms?
burning brown fat, and shivering and activity
adaptive hypothermia in endotherms are:
torpor, hibernation, estivation
what is torpor?
daily decrease in temperature and metabolism
what is hibernation?
prolonged decrease in temperature metabolism, and prolonged sleep
what is estivation?
summer sleep (desert frogs and tortoises bears)