Chapter 2: The Thirteen Colonies and the British Empire, 1607-1750

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Word Source: United States History Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination

George Calvert aka First Lord Baltimore

title was Lord Baltimore; founded Maryland as a haven for Catholics

Cecil Calvert aka Second Lord Baltimore

an English coloniser who was the first proprietor of the Maryland colony. He received the proprietorship that was intended for his father, George Calvert, the 1st Lord Baltimore, who died shortly before it was granted.

Act of Toleration 1649

April 21, 1649 - The first colonial statute granting religious freedom to all Christians; also called for the death of anyone who denied the divinity of Jesus; created by Cecil Baltimore; was repealed when Protestants resented the Catholic proprietor

Virginia

In 1607,Virginia became the first English colony in America. Colony that established a House of Burgesses in 1619.

Sir William Berkeley

the royal governor of Virginia. Adopted policies that favored large planters and neglected the needs of recent settlers in the 'backcountry.' His shortcomings led to Bacon's Rebellion

Bacon's Rebellion

1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then looted & burned Jamestown. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.

indentured servant

A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years.

headright system

Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

Roger Williams

He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his outspoken beliefs concerning distinction of state government and religion.

Providence

The area which is now Providence was first settled in June 1636 by prominent Baptist Roger Williams and other religious exiles. It was one of the original Thirteen Colonies of the United States.

Anne Hutchinson

She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.

antinomianism

An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; belief that the truly saved need not obey human or divine law. Identified with Anne Hutchinson

Rhode Island

Roger WIlliams founded this colony when he was expelled from Massachusetts for religious disagreements. Puritans; wanted religous tolerance & thought Church had too much power. Didn't have royal governors, it elected its own governor under self governing charters.

Thomas Hooker

A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut (Hartford) with strict limits on government.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 1639

1. It established a representative government consisting of a legislature elected by popular vote and a governor chosen by that legislature.
2. Other colonies would write constitutions that would include popular sovereignty and republicanism.

John Davenport

Puritan cleergyman and one of the founders of New Haven (1673) and combined with Hooker's Hartford to form Connecticut; caused the spread of Puritan belief and religious freedom.

Connecticut

Founded by Thomas Hooker and his followers to escape religious persecution. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut defined the powers of colonial government and allowed more men to vote than in Massachusetts.

New Hampshire

Founded by John Mason and others in 1623. Part of the 1679 Charter and was made royal that same year. It was absorbed by Massachusetts in 1641-1679. It was seperated again by Charles II in 1677

halway covenant

People of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. First-generation settlers were beginning to die out, while their children and grandchildren often expressed less religious piety, and more desire for material wealth.

New England Confederation

Defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.

Wampanoags

A tribe whose chief, Metacom, known to the colonies as King Phillip, united many tribes in southern New England against the English settlers.

Metacom aka King Philip's War

Chief of the Wampanoag Indians who led an attack on villages throughout New England in 1675. He wanted to drive settlers off of Native Indian land.

New York

settled 1624- originally Dutch colony "New Amsterdam", led by Peter Stuyvesant. 1664- King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York, and changed the name to New York. Religious tolerance and property protection were promised to the people of New York.

New Jersey

Formed when the Duke of York gave part of his land in New York to his friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. The people of New Jersey were granted the right to elect an assembly

Pennsylvania

1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. This colony allowed religious freedom.

Quakers

English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania

William Penn

Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania to establish a place for his people and others to live in peace and without persecution, in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.

holy experiment

William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all, was the first colony to allow many different religions to live together.

Frame of Government 1682-1683

Created under "The Holy Experiment" by William Penn, this guaranteed a representative assembly elected by landowners

Charter of Liberties 1701

Created under "The Holy Experiment" by William Penn, this guaranteed freedom of worship for all and unrestricted immigration

Delaware

Created when William Penn granted the three lower counties of Pennsylvania their own assembly. It was named after Lord De La Warr.

Georgia

1732 - Founded by James Oglethorpe. Georgia was formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida. It was a military-style colony, but also served as a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted Protestants.

James Oglethorpe

Founder and governorof Georgia in 1733. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his intrest in prison reform. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony.

mercantilism

An economic system to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests. Sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. These laws allowed England to control colonial trade. Colonists were required to ship certain products only to England; they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

Dominion of New England

1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros).

Sir Edmund Andros

Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England.

Glorious Revolution

In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William & Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism.

triangular trade

A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s: Africa, America, and Europe.
Africa sent slaves to America, America sent raw materials to Europe, and Europe sent guns & rum to Africa.

slave trade

The business of capturing, transporting, and selling people as slaves.

Middle Passage

A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America.

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