Chapter-5 The Integumentary System and Body Membranes.

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Hair follicle

tubelike pocket of the epidermal cells that extends to the dermis.

Hair papilla

where hair growth begins, small cuplike cluster of cells.

Hair root

The portion of hair hidden in the follicle.

Hair shaft

visible part of the hair and extends from the follicle.

Bulboid(Krause end bulbs)

The receptors in the skin that respond to low-frequency vibration.

Tactile(Meissner)corpuscles

Sensory receptors that are stimulated by light touch.

Lamellar(Pacini) corpuscles

a receptor found deep in the dermis that detects pressure on the skin surface,deep pressure.

Free nerve endings

Sensory receptor cells in the skin that detect pressure, temperature, and pain.

Three function of the skin

Protection, Sensation,&Temperature regulation.

Sebum

Oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands.

The apocrine

Sweat glands that can be found in the armpits and produce a thicker secretion.

The eccrine

Sweat glands that can be found all over the body and produce a transparent watery liquid.

Dermal papillae

in the upper dermal region. uneven fingerlike projections from superior surface which indent the epidermis above.

Kertain

As new skin cells approach the surface of the skin, their cytoplasm is replaced by a unique waterproof protein.

Synovial membrane

connective tissue membrane lining the spaces between bones and joints that secretes synovial fluid.

Two main layers of the epidermis of the skin

Stratum corneum. Stratum germinativum.

Visceral peritoneum

inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity.

Porietal pleura

The membrane lining the interior of the chest wall.

Basement membrane

layer between an epithelium and the underlying connective tissue.

Three types of epithelial membranes

Cutaneous membrane, Serous membranes, Mucous membranes.

Mucus membrane

Lines body cavities surfaces that open to the exterior. They are wet or moist membranes bathed by secretions.

Germinativum

Innnermost epidermal layer responsible for regeration of the epidermis.

Bursae

Small, cushionlike sacs that are found between moving body parts.

Lanugo

Fine and soft hair found on a new born infant.

Sebum

Oily secretion, lubricates surface of skin and hair.

Lunula

White, crescent-shaped area of a nail.

Second- degree burn

A burn that involves the deep epidermal layers and causes injury to the upper layers of the dermis.

Basement membrane

The very thin, gluelike connective tissue that holds and supports the epithelial cells.

Mucocutaneous junction

The transitional area that serves as a point of "fusion" where skin and mucous membranes meet.

Pacinian corpuscles

The receptors deep in the dermis that are capable of detecting pressure on the skin surface that respond to vibrations.

What are the four main types of membrane in the body?

Cutaneous(skin) membrane,Serous membrane,Mucous membrane,and Synovial membrane.

Which of the body's membrane are types of epithelial membrane?

Epithelial membranes composed of epithelial tissue and an underlying layer of specialized connective tissue,main three types..cutaneous membrane,serous membrane,mucous membrane.

Cutaneous membrane

They produce a transparent,watery liquid called perspiration or sweat,waste products such as ammonia and uric acid.

Serous membrane

They secrete a thin, watery fluid that helps reduce friction and serves as a lubricant.

Mucous membrane

They secrete a thick,slimy material called mucous that keeps the membranes moist and soft.

Synovial membrane

They secrete a thick,colorless lubricating fluid called synovial fluid,fluid helps reduce friction between the opposing surface of bones in movable joints.

Two major layers of the skin.

Outer and thinner layer called the epidermis, consists of the epithelial tissue,
Inner, thicker layer called the dermis

Where in the skin would you find layers of dead keratinized cells?

Stratum corneum

How is hair formed?

Hair begins when cells of the epidermal layer of the skin grow down into the dermis, forming a small tube called the hair follicle.
Hair growth begins from a small, cap-shaped cluster of cells called the hair papilla which is located at the base of the follicle.
As long as cells in the papilla of the hair follicle remain alive, new hair will replace any that is cut or plucked.

Where in the skin would you find sensory nerve receptors?

Meissner corpuscle or Pacini corpuscle

What are the 5 most important functions of the skin?

Protection,
temperature regulation,
sense organ activity, excretion, synthesis of vitamin-D.

Can you list some of the sensory stimuli that can be detected by the skin?

Touch, pressure, pain, heat, cold.

How can the amount of skin surface area covered by a burn be estimated?

Rule of nine's: Dividing the body into 11 areas of 9% each

Define membrane

A thin, sheetlike structure that:
-covers and protects body surfaces,
-lines body cavities,
-covers the inner surfaces of hollow organs.

Explain the structure of a serous membrane.

Composed of two distinct layers of tissue.
1)The epithelial sheet, which is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelium,
2)connective tissue layer, which is a thin gluelike tissue (basement membrane) that holds and supports the epithelial cells. Purpose: The serous membrane that lines the walls of body cavities is the parietal portion, whereas the visceral portion covers the surface of organs found in body cavities.

Explain the structure of a mucous membrane

Mucous membranes are:
- epithelial membranes that line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior, such as the lining of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
The mucocutaneous junction serves as a point of "fusion" where the skin and mucous membranes meet, such as in the eyelids, nasal openings, vulva, and anus.

Explain the structure of a synovial membrane. What is the function of synovial fluid?

Synovial membranes line the spaces between bones and joints that move.
-They are classified as connective tissue membranes, which are smooth, slick, and secrete a thick colorless lubricating fluid called synovial fluid.
Function of synovial fluid: synovial fluid help reduce friction between opposing surfaces of bones in movable joints.

Name and briefly describe the layers of the epidermis

of the epidermis

--The stratum germinativum is the innermost layer of cells that continually reproduce. The new cells then move up toward the surface of the skin.
--The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of keratin-filled cells.
--The pigment-containing cells are called melanocytes, which produce the brown pigment melanin.
--The dermal-epidermal junction is a specialized area between two primary skin layers.

Explain the structure of the dermis

The dermis is the deeper of the two layers of skin.
It is thick and composed mainly of connective tissue. -The upper region of the dermis is characterized by peglike projections called dermal papillae. They bind and form the two layers of skin together, called the dermal-epidermal junction.
-The deeper area of the dermis is filled with interlacing fibers—most are made of collagen, some are elastic fibers that make the skin stretchable and elastic.

Differentiate among the hair papilla, the hair root, and the hair shaft.

The hair papilla is a small cap-shaped cluster of cells where hair growth begins at the base of the follicle.
--hair follicle-small tube where cells of the epidermal layer of the skin grow down into the dermis.
--hair root- hidden in the follicle.
-- hair shaft is the visible part of a hair.

Explain what occurs when the arrector pili contract.

The arrector pili are specialized smooth muscle that produce goose pimples and cause hair to stand up straight.

Name the four receptors of the skin (PMFK)

Pacinian corpuscle is deep in the dermis and is capable of detecting pressure on the skin surface. -Meissner's corpuscle is located close to the surface of the skin and detects the sensation of light touch. -Free nerve endings respond to pain.
-Krause's end bulbs detect the sensation of touch, low-frequency vibration, and possibly cold.

Give the location of the eccrine glands and their function, and describe the type of fluid they produce

Location:Eccrine sweat glands are spread over the whole body
Function: They are important in maintaining homeostasis and a constant body temperature and eliminating waste products.
Type of fluid: They produce a transparent watery liquid called perspiration or sweat, which helps in the elimination of waste products,

Give the location of the apocrine glands and their function, and describe the type of fluid they produce.

Apocrine sweat glands are found primarily in the armpit and in the pigmented skin area around the genitals. They produce a thick, odorless secretion.

Give the location of the sebaceous glands and their function, and describe the type of fluid they produce

Sebaceous glands are tiny ducts that open into hair follicles. The fluid they secrete is called sebum, which lubricates the hair and skin.

Explain the difference between a second-degree and third-degree burn. Which is considered a "full-thickness" burn?

Second-degree burn involves the deep epidermal layers and upper layers of the dermis, but complete destruction of the dermis does not occur. Blisters, severe pain, generalized swelling, and fluid loss occur with this degree of tissue damage.

Third-degree (full-thickness) burn is the complete destruction of the epidermis and dermis, involving muscle and bone. Sensation to pain is often absent immediately after injury because of the destruction of nerve endings. Fluid loss and risk of infection are major problems with third-degree burns and are often life-threatening

Serous membranes

secrete a thin watery fluid that helps reduce friction and serves as a lubricant when organs rub against one another and against the walls of the cavities that contain them.

'ABCD"rule

asymmetry, border, color, diameter

Border

Benign moles are outlined by a distinct border, but maligant melanomal lesions are often irregular or indistinct in shape.

Asymmetry

Benign moles are usually symmetrical. Their halves are mirror images of each other. Melanoma lesions are asymmetrical or lopsided.

Color

Benign moles may be any shade of brown but are relatively evenly colored. Melanomal lesions tend to be unevenly colored, exhibiting a mixture of shades or colors.

Diameter

By the time a melanoma lesion exhibites characteristics A,B and C,it also is probably larger than 6mm(1/4inch).

Integumentary system

a collection of organs that helps the body maintain a stable and healthy internal environment; the organs in this system include skin, hair, and nails

Classify burns

Thickness of the damaged skin is one way to classify burns.First -degree,or partial-thickness burn,Second-degree ,or partial--thicknessburn,Third-degree,or full-thickness burn.

Structure of the skin

1. The Epidermis is the uppermost layer. It's the layer you can see and is mostly made up of dead, keratin filled cells.
2. The Dermis is the next layer. It contains the blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands. and nerve endings.
3. The Subcutaneous Layer or Hypodermis is mostly fatty connective tissue that attaches the skin to underlying bone and muscle.

Parietal portion

Portion of the serous membrane that lines the walls of a body cavity much like wallpaper covers walls.

Visceral portion

Portion of the serous membrane which covers the surface of organs found in body cavities.

Pleura

Serous membrane that surrounds the lung; parietal pleura is the outer layer; visceral pleura is the inner layer.

Peritoneum

A multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity.

Pleurisy

Inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath.

Peritonitis

Inflammation of the serous membranes in the abdominal cavity.

Mucus

A sticky, thick fluid secreted by mucous glands and mucous membranes; keeps the free surface of membranes moist.

Lamina Propria

Layer of connective tissue underlying the epithelium of skin or a mucous membrane.

Synovial fluid

A thick colorless lubricating fluid secreted by the membranes that cover the spaces between the bone and joints that move.

Sebaceous glands

Glands in the dermis that open into hair follicles and secrete a waxy fluid called sebum.

Hypodermis(Subcutaneous tissue)

Bottom layer of the skin
Hold fat for insulation
Blood vessels that control body temperature and brings nutrients to the skin., mainly fat and provides heat, insulation, shock absorption and a reverse of calories.

Stratum germinativum

Innermost layer of the epidermis

Keratin

Protein that forms hair, nails, and the tough outer layer of skin.

Stratum corneum

Outermost layer; in cells, cytoplasm replaced by keratin, making them waterproof; flat, scale-like cells that flake off; first line of defense against surface bacteria; thickest on palms of hands, soles of feet.

Skin pigment

The deepest epidermal layer. It is responsible for production of pigment, which gives color to the skin.

Melanin

Pigment produced by the epidermis that protects skin from sun damage and gives skin its color.

Melanocytes

Produce melanin, and they are partly responsible for skin color., produce melanin which provides protection against damage from UV radiation.

Cyanosis

Bluish discoloration of the skin, associated with poor circulation, lack of oxygen.

Dermal-Epidermal junction

The junctions that exists between the thin epidermal layer of the skin above and the dermal layer below.

Dermal papillae

Small nipple-like bumps projections on the superficial layer of the dermis that serve to lock the dermis and epidermis together.

Blisters

A swelling in the skin filled with watery liquid. they are caused by burns or rubbing.

Papillary layer

what layer is superficial; areolar with lots of elastic fibers; found in fingerprints and whorls of ridges and grooves.

Reticular layer

The deepest skin layer. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue and contains many arteries and veins, sweat and seaceous glands, and pressure receptors.

Subcutaneous tissue

A fatty layer found below the dermis. also called adipose or subcutis tissue. it varies in thickness according to the age, gender, and health of an individual.

Arrector pili

Tiny muscles in the dermis, attached to each hair; cause goose bumps to trap air and insulate the body against cold.

Receptors

Special cells that ditect energy and convert it into energy that is sent to the brain.

Nail body

Visible portion of the nail.

Nail root

Portion of nail body under cuticle.

Nail cuticle

Lies in a groove and hidden by a fold of skin over nail.

Sweat or Sudoriferous glands

Most numerous; eccrine and apocrine.

Pores

The pinpoint-size or tiny openings on the skin's surface.

Blackhead

where a sebum plug is exposed to air and oxidizes.

Skin cancer

Basal cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Melanoma, a harmful, malignant growth on the skin.

Kaposi sarcoma

Malignant tumor of the blood vessels associated with AIDS.

Basal cell carcinoma

A malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis; this is the most common and least harmful type of skin cancer because it is slow growing and rarely spreads to other parts of the body.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Second most common, Involves keratinocytes of stratum spinosum, Most common on scalp, ears, lower lip, and hands, Good prognosis if treated by radiation therapy or removed surgically.

Melanoma

Most dangerous skin cancer because it is spreads fast and resistant to chemotherapy
has ABCD rule.

Protection

Against microorganisms, tissue from injury, UV rays.

Temperature regulation

What is a balance between heat production, heat regulation, and heat loss?

Sense organ activity

Skin functions as an enormous sense organ. Receptors serve as receivers for the body, keeping it informed of changes in its environment.

Excretion

The elimination of metabolic wastes, such as ammonia,uric acid,and urea, the process by which wastes are removed from the body.

Synthesis of vitamin D

Synthesis of vitamin D requires activation of a precursor molecule in the skin by UV rays in sunlight.

Rule of nine

Measures the percent of the body burnes. The body is divided into 11 areas and each area accounts for 9% of the total body surface.

Burns

Injuries resulting from excessive exposure to thermal, chemical, electrical or radioactive agents, classified according to their depth.

Prespiration

sweat; secreted by the sweat glands and made up of 99% water and some waste products.

Free nerve endings

Sensory receptor cells in the skin that detect pressure, temperature, and pain.

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