← Ch. 8 vocab Bio Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Energy ability to work; energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed. Thermodynamics study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe. Metabolism all of the chemical reactions that occur within a cell. Some make and some break things apart. Photosynthesis two-phase anabolic pathway in which the Sun's light energy is converted to chemical energy for use by the cell. Cell Respiration catabolic pathway in which organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) energy-carrying biological molecule, which, when broken down, drives cellular activities. Autotroph organism that captures energy from sunlight or in organic substances to produce its own food; provides the foundation of the food supply for other organisms; also called a producer. Heterotroph organism that cannot make its own food and gets its nutrients and energy requirements by feeding on other organisms; also called a consumer. Thylakoid in chloroplasts, one of the stacked, flattened, pigment-containing membranes in which light dependent reactions occur. the site for the electron transport system for photosynthesis. Granum- one of the stacks of pigment-containing thylakoids in a plant's chloroplasts. Stroma fluid-filled space outside the grana in which light-dependent reactions take place. Chlorophyll a pigment plants use to harness the energy in sunlight for photosynthesis Pigment light-absorbing colored molecule, such as chlorophyll and carotenoid, in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplast. Molecule that absorbs light NADP+ in photosynthesis, the major electron carrier involved in electron transport Calvin cycle light-independent reactions during phase two of photosynthesis in which energy is stored in organic molecules as glucose. Krebs cycle / Citric Cycle series of reactions in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide inside the mitochondria of cells Chemosynthesis a process by which organisms use inorganic compounds and heat energy to make glucose. Fermentation- process in which NAD+ is regenerated, allowing cells to maintain glycolysis in the absence of oxygen. Aerobic Respiration- metabolic process in which pyruvate is broken down and electron-carrier molecules are used to produce ATP through electron transport. Anaerobic Respiration- metabolic process that does not require oxygen. Fermentation- process in which NAD+ is regenerated, allowing cells to maintain glycolysis in the absence of oxygen. Glycolysis- an aerobic process; first stage of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate. Rubisco- enzyme that converts inorganic carbon dioxide molecules into organic molecules during the final step of the Calvin cycle.