A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources
a lineage of genetically idential individuals or cells
the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
the manipulation of organisms or their components yo produce useful products
a virus that infects bacteria
an endonuclease that recognizes and CUTS DNA molecules foreign to a bacterium-cuts at specific nucleotide sequences
an organism that transmits pathogens from one host to another
a small, circular double stranded DNA molecule that carries accessory genes seperate from those of a bacterial chromosome
the conversion of a normal cell to a cancerous cell
change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA
a DNA locus whose 5'-3' sequence is identical on each strand
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain.
The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences.
A set of cell clones containing all the DNA segments from a genome, each within a plasmid, phage, or other cloning vector.
single-stranded nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) used to identify a complementary sequence by hydrogen-bonding to it
In genetics, the mating, or crossing, of two true-breeding varieties.
An enzyme encoded by some certain viruses (retroviruses) that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
polymerase chain reaction
A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules, and nucleotides.
A technique for separating nucleic acids or proteins on the basis of their size and electrical charge, both of which affect their rate of movement through an electric field in a gel.
A technique that enables specific nucleotide sequences to be detected in a sample of DNA. It involves gel electrophoresis of DNA molecules and their transfer to a membrane (blotting), followed by nucleic acid hybridization with a labeled probe.
A technique that enables specific nucleotide sequences to be detected in a sample of mRNA
A technique in which proteins, previously separated by gel electrophoresis, are transferred to paper. A specific labeled antibody in generally used to mark the location of a particular protein.
the introduction of genes into an afflicted individual for therapeutic purposes
(biology) the existence of two or more forms of individuals within the same animal species (independent of sex differences)
organisms that contain genes from another organism