Biology Midterm Review

72 terms by t00t5

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Hypothesis

Educated guess

Analysis

Looking at/comparing data

Data

Information from an experiment

Problem

Concept being tested

Monomer

A small molecule that makes up a polymer

Polymer

A compund that is made up of many small monomers

Carbohydrate

Macromolecule made up of glucose

Protein

Macromolecule made up of amino acids

Lipid

Macromolecule made up of 3 fatty acids and glycerol

Nucleic Acid

Macromolecule made up of nucleotides

Enzyme

Biological catalyst that breaks down molecules

Activation Energy

Energy required to start a chemical reaction

Catalyst

Lowers activation energy required for chemical reactions

CHONPS

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur - 6 essential elements required for life

Hydrolysis

When monomers connect with water to form a polymer

Dehyrdration

Loss of water from a polymer, making a lot of smaller monomers

Amino Acid

Small monomer that makes up protein

Glucose

Small monomer that makes up carbohydrates

Nucleotides

Small monomer that makes up nucleic acids

3 fatty acids & glycerol

Small monomers that make up lipids

Cell

Basic building block of life, smallest level of organization in existence

Cytoplasm

Jelly-like substance that holds all organelles in place

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of cell where Cell Respiration occurs

Nucleus

Brain of the cell that makes all of the decisions in the cell

Eukaryote

Type of cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus (Ex: bacteria, algae, microorganisms)

Prokaryote

Type of cell without a nucleus or any other cell organelles, save for ribosomes

Animal Cell

Cell that lacks a chloroplast, but has a mitochondia to produce its energy (Ex: humans, animals)

Plant Cell

Cell with a chloroplast to conduct photosynthesis and a mitochondria to conduct Cell Respiration (Ex: trees, grass)

Facilitated Diffusion

Diffusion that requires proteins to aid the movement of particles through a membrane

Cell Wall

Cell organelle that provides structure and protection for plant cells

Cell Membrane

Cell organelle that controls what comes in and out of the cell

Diffusion

Movement of particles in an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration w/out the use of energy

Concentration

How many particles are occupying a certain space

Osmosis

Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable layer

Active Transport

Movement of particles that requires energy to move

Golgi Body

Receives, packages, and sends nutrients to rest of cell

Vacuole

Storage for cell

Ribosome

Creates proteins

ER

Smooth - Makes lipids
Rough - Studded with ribosomes - transport proteins

Cell Respiration

Creates ATP for organism

Photosynthesis

Creates glucose for plant cells to use for Cell Respiration

Oxygen

Needed for Cell Respiration, given off as a by-product by plants

Glucose

Monomer of carbs
Made during photosynthesis
Used during cell respiration

Water

Required for cell respiration

Chloroplast

Where photosynthesis happens

Reactant

Compounds mixed together before chemical reaction

Product

Results of chemical reaction

ATP

Energy for organisms produced during cell respiration

Chlorophyll

Produced during photosynthesis
Used during cell respiration

Aerobic

Exercise that requires oxygen
More efficient

Anaerobic

Exercise that doesn't require oxygen
Good for short bursts

Heterotroph

Needs to eat their food for energy

Autotroph

Can produce their own food with the sun

Homeostasis

When the body is doing good and is at the perfect conditions

Neurons

Feedback systems that tell the brain how the body is doing

Skeletal System

Provides structure and support

Circulatory System

Transports blood and nutrients throughout body

Respiratory System

Inhales oxygen for cell respiration, exhales carbon dioxide as waste

Excretory System

Removes waste from the body

Nervous System

Sends and receives messages telling body what to do
Runs body functions

Feedback Inhibition

Reacting to something that is happening (ie:touching a hot pan)

Endocrine System

Hormones

Immune System

Preventing and fighting infection

Nonspecific defenses

Skin, hair, nails, T-cells

Specific Defenses

White Blood Cells

Digestive System

Breaks down food into nutrients for body

Regulate

To check and fix

DNA

Genetic Information

Virus

Non-living infectious agent that manifests itself in living cells and reproduces

Bacteria

Living prokaryotic infectious cells that can be treated

Antibiotics

Take them when you have a bacterial infection

Vaccine

Take them to prevent viral infections

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