What is the field of life span development devoted to understanding? What does it consider?
human growth and changes throughout the lifespan. the whole person.
According to life span development, what does a person develop as?
an integrated whole
In life span development, the emphasis is on _____ and _____. The goal is to be _____ throughout the lifespan.
health and wellness. healthy.
By the time of _____, part of each individual's health is predetermined by _____ composition, however _____ and _____ behaviors play a major role.
conception. genetic, environment, lifestyle.
While health and wellness are emphasized, what about patients that come to us already having health issues?
the goal is then restoration
Development refers to changes over time in a person's _____, _____ and _____ due to _____ and _____ influences.
body, cognition, behavior. biological, environmental
What is life span development divided into?
developmental periods or stages that most people share
How many developmental periods are there in the human lifespan? What are they?
NINE: prenatal, infancy, toddlerhood, early childhood, middle childhood, adolesence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, older adulthood
Some developmental periods are defined primarily by _____ events, while others are defined more by _____expectations.
How long does each developmental period last?
prenatal (conception to birth), infancy (birth to 18-24 mo.), toddlerhood (12-15 mo. to 2-3 yrs), early childhood (2-3 yrs to 5-6 yrs), middle childhood (6 yrs to 12 yrs), adolescence (12 yrs to 18-21 yrs), young adulthood (18-21 yrs to 40 yrs), middle adulthood (40 yrs to 60-65 yrs), older adulthood (60-65 yrs to age of death)
Human development is the result of several interacting forces. What do these forces include? (3)
biological potentials, environmental and social factors, individual's own responses to those circumstances
What do biological factors include? Environmental factors? Sociocultural factors?
genetic, neurological and physical conditions. specific experiences in the environment that influence behavior and development. social and cultural influences.
Development is best understood when considered within a _____ framework and within the _____ or categories of human experience.
What are the four domains of human development?
physical, cognitive, personality and sociocultural
The physical domain of human development includes changes in physical _____, _____, _____ capabilities, and _____ skills.
shape, size, sensory, motor
The cognitive domain of human development includes the acquisition of skills in _____, _____, _____, _____ _____ and _____.
perceiving, thinking, reasoning, problem solving and language
What does the personality domain of human development refer to?
the acquisition of stable and enduring personality traits
The sociocultural domain of human development refers to the processes of _____ and _____.
socialization and enculturation
Nature vs. nurture (what are they, past and present)
Nature refers to genetics. Nurture refers to the environment. In the past, the emphasis used to just be on nature but now we emphasize both.
What are the roles of biological events and the environment thought to be in genetics?
maturation is closely linked with biological events. learning is closely linked with interactions with the environment.
What does developmental neuroscience focus on?
the links between brain function, behavior and thought
According to the psychodynamic views of human development, what are behavior and personality motivated by?
inner forces, memories, conflicts
What are two theories under the psychodynamic view of human development? What time span does each encompass?
Freud's psychoanalytic theory (birth to adolescence), Erickson's psychosocial theory (entire life span)
How many stages are there in Erickson's psychosocial theory? What needs to happen with them? In what order do they need to occur in?
8. need to be resolved over one's lifespan. need to occur in a fixed order.
What do the first five stages of Erickson's psychosocial theory pertain to? What about the last three?
birth through adolescence. adulthood.
The interactions with _____ and the impact of _____ are both important in Erickson's psychosocial theory. What is his theory based on?
others, culture. observation and speculation.
What do behavioral view of human development focus on?
processes that produce observable behavior.
Behavioral views of human development use environmental manipulation to change behavior. What are three examples?
classical conditioning, operant conditioning, social learning theory
Behavioral views of human development are not _____-specific.
What do cognitive-developmental theories focus on? (2)
the processes of how one can know, understand and think about one's world and how one develops thinking, reasoning, and problem solving and how these change over time
What is an example of a cognitive view of human development?
Piaget's stages of cognition (birth through adolescence)
What does an ecological view involve?
examining all the contexts in which humans develop
According to the ecological view, different levels of the environment influence development _____.
According to the ecological view, a person is a _____ and _____ of one's environment. What is an example of this?
product and producer. a child affects a parent and a parent affects a child.
According to the ecological view, interactions within the environment are _____ or _____.
How developed the bioecological model? What three things does it emphasize the interaction of?
Urie Bronfenbrenner. individual, family, societal forces.
According to the bioecological model, development occurs as an outcome of interaction of one's _____ environment with the _____ and other _____.
biological, family, environments
What does Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model look like/what are the components?
a circle. at the center of the circle is the individual. from there it builds outward in this order: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem
The microsystem involves relationships between the individual and what? What things might be included in this domain?
the immediate environment. family, school, peers, religious affiliation, workplace, neighborhood.
What does the mesosystem involve?
how microsystems influence each other in development
The components of the exosystem _____, but do not _____, the developing individual. What sorts of things does this include?
affect, don't contain. education system, economic system, political system, government system, religious system. could include extended family.
The macrosystem includes the _____ and _____ in which one lives. This includes _____, _____, and _____.
culture, subculture. laws, values and customs
The chronosystem is the domain of _____. It includes the changes in the other environments as the individual grows and develops.
How is the bioecological model important to nursing?
we should look for the strengths in an individual's own model
In nursing, we work with individuals in the context of their _____. How is this important?
family. the family is important in promoting health as this is where an individual learns health/illness/lifestyle behaviors
What are three different definitions of family?
self definition, U.S. Bureau of Census, Legal Definition
What is the self definition of family? What may this include?
two or more people who define themselves as a family and depend on one another for emotional, physical and/or economic support. may not include blood/legal ties. may include even pets.
According to the U.S. Bureau of Census, a family is a group of _____ or more persons related by _____, _____ or _____ and who are residing together.
two, blood, marriage, adoption
What is the legal definition of family? When does it often come into play?
two or more people related by blood ties, adoption, guardianship or marriage. comes into play when discussing who can make health care decisions, who can visit, etc
50% of children now live with...
one parent only
What does a family provide to its members?
protection, nourishment, and socialization
In a family, there is _____ and _____ among members.
Where are health and illness behaviors learned?
within the context of the family
How do family and an individual's health interact?
family affects an individual's health and an individual's health and health practices affect the family
Health care is more effective when it emphasizes the _____ rather than the _____. Why is this?
family rather than the individual. the family members are the caregivers and supporter's of the individual's lifestyle
What are the four major ways of considering the family?
component of society, context, subsystems, a unit
What does the context view of family mean?
focus on an individual member and the rest of the family is in the background.
subsystem view of families + when it commonly occurs?
parent-child, adult-adult, siblings. seen in pediatric settings
What does the "unit" view of families mean? What does it focus on?
family members as an interactive system. focuses on the entire family.
What view of family gets used the most in practice? What is the ideal view to use?
the context view gets used the most. the unit view is the ideal view, though it doesn't get used much.
_____, _____, and _____ of the health of families are important to _____ survival.
promotion, maintenance, restoration. society's
How many levels of family health promotion are there?
primary, secondary and tertiary
What is the focus of primary family health promotion? What four things commonly get focused on?
choosing life-style choices that reduce risk factors for illness. nutrition, activity, sleep and relaxation
Primary healthy promotion is essentially _____ care. What are some examples?
wellness. immunizations, well-child appointments, well-adult visits
In primary family health promotion, a family is ultimately _____ for their own health. The family has a right to health information to make _____ _____ about behavior and lifestyle changes. The family has a capacity to _____. The family will choose only health behaviors which are relevant and compatible with _____ and _____ structure.
responsible. informed decisions. change. lifestyle and family structure
Secondary family health promotion focuses on the _____ attached to _____ a family member or the family unit is experiencing.
In secondary family health promotion, what is the decision to seek health care related to?
socioeconomic status, health insurance, access to care, beliefs regarding health, illness and health care providers
What is the focus of tertiary family health promotion? What is the goal?
health restoration activities within the family unit. to restore the family to optimum functioning.
_____ changes are necessary in tertiary family health promotion.
What is an example of a time when tertiary family health promotion is necessary?
when a family member has an MI, or family member has cancer
What are the components of a family assessment?
the FAMILY'S definition of the family members. composition of the family. roles/function of each family member. genograms (health hx across generations), family strengths, family risk factors
What does a genogram look at? How any generations does it look at? Who develops it?
health history across generations. over three or more generations. the nurse and the family develop it together.
What does behavior genetics try to understand? What view does it incorporate?
the genetic origins of behavior. the view that complex traits are determined by an interaction of heredity and the environment.
Behavioral genetics looks at the _____ _____, or _____, of similar characteristics with genes.
statistical correlation, concordance
What do concordance rates form the basis of?
estimates of heritability, the proportion of a trait that is thought to result from genetic factors
Epigenetics refers to the interrelationship between _____ and _____. How do these two interact?
genes and environment. they have a bi-directional influence on each other.
Development is a series of complex exchanges between _____ and _____ that change over one's lifetime.
genes and environment
Overall, _____ are viewed more favorably today than they were in the past.
Collectivist cultures stress _____ and _____. What is an example of this? Individualistic cultures emphasize _____ and _____ achievement.
interdependence and cooperation. In Japan, infants and children through age three sleep with their parents. competition and individual achievement.
_____ pay a critical role in orienting a child to society and culture.
We all start of thinking that our family is "the norm," but what is it important to avoid?
ethnocentrism, which is the tendency to assume that our own beliefs, customs and values are normal and others are abnormal
What are the components of a child's developmental niche?
everyday physical and social settings, child-care and child-rearing custom, overall psychology of the caregivers