a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal
what are the 3 general perspectives in the traditional model of leaders?
leadership = influence
leadership used to be thought of as inherited or genetic, but now it is recognized as ________
the belief that some individuals possess particular characteristics that others lack and that it is these characteristics that enable them both to secure positions of leadership and to exercise influence successfully once they occupy them
what are the 5 qualities with the most consistent relation to leadership?
who argued that traits that help you become a leader aren't what help you maintain it?
3) intellectually stimulating
4) highly considerate of well-being of others
what are 4 major qualities that transformational leaders have that exert influence?
concerted effort to identify the full range of styles
a reflection of how a leader balances concern about subordinates with concern about tasks
characteristic ways that leaders behave (how they lead)
what are the 3 major leadership styles?
which leadership style did Hitler and Napoleon demonstrate?
which leadership style means that the majority rules?
which leadership style is delegative and hands-off?
leadership is determined by the situation in this perspective on leadership
the notion that the style of leadership that maximizes the performance of groups and leads to other desired outcomes depends on how well the behavior the style embodies is suited to the characteristics of the situation in which a person attempting to exercise leadership finds himself or herself
4) leader-member exchange
what are the 4 theories in the situational perspective?
the style of leadership that is appropriate for one to adopt depends on the developmental level of group members
what are the 4 cycles of the life-cycle theory?
critical concerns in choosing a leadership style are the apparent motivation of group members and removing obstacles that may adversely affect the motivation
1) group members' perception that they have to the ability to complete a task
2) opportunity to do so
3) expectation of a positive payoff
what 3 things is motivation determined by?
appropriate leadership style in a given situation is a function of relationships with subordinates, power in the position, and structure of the task; as a leader you need to balance these 3
1) relationship with subordinates
2) power in the position
3) structure of the task
what are the 3 things that need to be balanced to have appropriate leadership according to the contingency theory?
this assumes that leaders are inherently unable to maintain the same relationship or communication style with everyone; flexibility
what are the 4 categories of obstacles to which a leader may need to direct counteractive influence?
1) authority relations
2) pressure for uniformity
3) status differentiation
4) disruptive behavior
5) incompatibility between individual and collective goals
a leader has to be equipped to overcome obstacles posed by what 5 things?
initiating ideas, seeking and giving opinions, elaborating ideas, and providing orientation are all examples of what type of functions?
being supportive of others, attempting to manage conflicts, relieving tension, and building cohesion are all examples of what type of functions?
putting off choices in the hope that the need for making them will dissipate
what 2 broad forms of mediation is leadership constituted in?
2) sense making
what are the 2 main aspects of object mediation?
1) decision making
2) relational management
what are the 2 main aspects of action mediation?
1) defining roles
2) motivating subordinates
3) facilitating the resolution of conflicts
what are the 3 main components of relational management?
what communication scholar discussed constraints?
what communication scholar said that leaders should work against extreme concurrence, or groupthink?
what are the 3 types of constraints?
1) named by the group as the leader
2) group members perceive to be performing leader-like behaviors
3) greatest influence on the group's final decision
4) actual performance of leadership behaviors
what are the 4 major approaches to defining a person as a leader?
the behaviors that help a group to achieve its goals
do men or women express greater dissatisfaction in autocratically-led groups?
are men or women more self-assertive and competitive?
are men or women more cooperative and supportive?
are men or women more likely to rotate leadership?
males are more often rated more positively than females for the same behavior
who is the majority or minority? men or women?
when the behavior of 1 group member influences the behavior of others, the group is thought of as a what?
a form of mediation that mediates between information environments, group actions, and group outcomes
model of leadership
1) accounts for complexity and uniqueness of situated leadership behavior
2) provides an explanation of how certain individuals may be effective across situations
1) simplify through statistical and conceptual means
2) treat it as a problem to be solved
3) manipulate the design of research studies
what are 3 strategies to reduce the complexity of leadership?
a set of rules and norms that aid the group in solving problems and accomplishing its task
causal maps for making sense of the available info and planning subsequent action
3) double interacts
the communication cycle consists of what 3 things?
messages that are performed
responses to the messages that are performed (acts)
changes prompted by responses
the ability of leaders to collect and gather accurate imprints of the group's environment
the ability to perform a variety of actions that aid groups in overcoming obstacles
the specific abilities required to competently perform a given task
1) sense making
2) decision making
a comprehensive leadership model must address 3 broad processes aimed at completing the task of organizing a group. what are they?
how individuals decode ambiguous information and diagnose a situation
how individuals select messages to aid the group in overcoming environmental obstacles
how individuals actually encode the selected message and with what effect
shifting from viewing problems as either/or to both/and
1) choice making
2 skills involved in deciding which behaviors leaders will perform are?
collective objectives or endpoints that the group wishes to achieve
what are the 2 general types of leadership goals?
objectives that relate to accomplishing the group's overall task or mission
non-task related goals which attempt to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships
3) contribution to exchange
leaders/followers try to establish relationships within what 3 parameters?
the unfolding collective interpretation of the rules, metaphors, and expectations that guide and regulate role relationships and interaction
the group's intersubjective task representation or "design logic" that depicts the strategy for how a decision is to be made
what are the 3 skill levels of articulation?
which skill level of articulation means the person doesn't understand the demands of the group and the rules for appropriate and well-sequenced talk?
which skill level of articulation means the person is able to articulate appropriately as they understand the demands and rules of the group?
which skill level of articulation means the person can operate within the existing system, as well as transcend the system and articulate a new organizing system which supplants the initial one?
the ability of the individual to successfully execute a particular behavior
successful performance and skillful behavior is marked by what 2 qualities?
in relation to sex and gender, which is determined by genetic codes that program biological features?
in relation to sex and gender, which is culturally constructed?
a person's psychological sex role or gender; how feminine or masculine a person is
which type of communication emphasizes feelings and is generally used by women more often than men?
which type of communication emphasizes accomplishing something and is generally used by men more often than women?
which type of orientation is when a person asserts himself or herself in order to gain personal status and control?
which type of orientation is when a person places greater emphasis on building the team than on winning personal status and credit?
do men or women typically communicate more forcefully?
differences between men and women's communication are general, not ______
an expressed struggle between at least 2 independent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals
what are the 5 conflict styles used when making decisions or solving problems?
which conflict style is a passive approach in which a group member may disagree with other group members, but will not speak up in order to avoid a conflict?
which conflict style is highly cooperative in dealing with conflict and is often employed when the relationship of the group is more important to you than the problem at hand?
a highly aggressive and uncooperative conflict style
(negotiation) a cooperative style that attempts to integrate all group members' opinions in order to make a decision that meets all of the group members' needs
which conflict style stresses a shared outcome- not uncommon for group members to give up personal needs for the betterment of the group?
being able to engage in all 5 types of conflict styles
acting in ways that are perceived as permissible within a given culture
a balance between conflict and concurrency/agreement
Cuban Missile Crisis
what did the idea of groupthink come from? (hint: JFK)
1) highly cohesive
2) considerable pressure
3) quality decision
what are 3 major components that come into play when it comes to groupthink?
a quick and easy shortcut
in group think, the heuristic is what type of constraint?
which communication scholar came up with the idea of groupthink?
faulty decision-making, where groups don't consider all alternatives and desire unanimity at the expense of quality decisions
identify the conflict
what is the first step in managing conflict?
what are the 6 qualities that characterize a defensive climate?
judging and criticizing other group members
imposing the will of one group member on the others
using hidden agendas
demonstrating indifference and lack of commitment
being rigid in one's willingness to listen to others
2) problem orientation
a supportive climate is marked by what 6 traits?
presenting ideas or opinions
focusing attention on the task
communicating openly and honestly
understanding another person's thoughts
asking for opinions
expressing a willingness to listen to the ideas of others