A covered walkway surrounding a coutyard (atrium) or a passageway around the apse of a church. Also, the aisle surrounding the center space of a centrally planned church.
An architecutural area composed of a half cylinder with a half dome, which contains the sancuturay and the altar table.
Open, coonnaded court attached to the fornt of a Christian basilica.
A vertical space definded by principal upright structural members ( columns, arches, windows, and buttresses). The transverse arches & piers of the nave divided a church into bays.
Roman public underground burial complex of tunnels with niches (loculi) for bodies, urns, and sarcophagi & larger rooms (cubiculae) for funeral services.
Principle church in a diocese where the bishop presides and says Mass. The cathedral has the bishop's chair (cathedra).
Chi-Rho Monogram (XP)
compoised of the first two letters of Chirst in Greek and represents Chirst
Chamber beneath a church. It may have extra chapels & important people may be buried there
Edict of Milan
313 AD: This decree by Constantine makes Christianity an official religion of the Roman Empire. This edict stops Roman persecution of the Christian & returns their confiscated property. Christians now practice their religion openly, make Christian art and build churches. This edict leads to the Christian foundation of Western Civilization.
The vestibule or entrance hall of a church, which you enter from the front entrance before going in the nave. In churches with an atrium, the narthex is often the "church side" of the open ambulatory. In Early Christian churches, the narthex can also be an entrance porch with
Large central hall in which the congregation meets for ceremonies. Usually a longitudinal area.
Common Early Christian image of a standing figure praying with uplifted arms & open palms.
Bishop of Rome. Saint Peter was the first Bishop of Rome.
The area around the main altar, which is the holiest part of the church.
in a cross-shaped church, the transept refers to the cross arms placed perpendicular to the nave, separating the nave from the main apse.
Enamelwork in which the surface decoration is set in cells formed by thin strips of metal partitions called cloisons soldered to a metal plate.
in a Byzantine context, an icon refers to a painting or sculpture of a holy person or event.
opponets of holy images, who believed using these image was a form of idolatry. iconoclasts broke & destroyed many Early Byzantine icons. In 726, the Iconoclastic Controversy began with an edict from Emperor Leo III banning all religious images.
.Supporters of icon veneration, who are led by the moks & found support in the western Byzantine provinces. Led by Basil I, the Iconophiles won. In 843, Empress Theodora Officially overturned Leo's decree.
A decoration of picture made of small, usually square-cut pieces of stone, tile or glass called tessserae.
Christ as ruler of the universe
The body, part of body, or some personal memorial of a saint, or holy person. often these remains are kept in remembrance in a container called a reliquary
Barbarian style of art using animals & bird motifs. It is rooted in their herding lifestyle.
Cultural revival brought about by Charlemagne about c. 8000 AD. He set-up schools & churches. He reforms the script, preserves old manuscripts, re-introduces Roman law & Roman political institutions, defends Christianity, and safeguards Europe.
A manuscript in bound book form made possible by the use of animal skin (parchment) pages instead of papyrus. Paint flakes off the rolled pages, flat pages can have more decoration
Embellishment of a manuscript page with drawings and paintings in bright colors with gold and silver accents.
a dense, complex pattern with twisted, knotted, woven-looking lines, often with details of head, bodies, tails &/ or the feet of animals, birds or serpents. This pattern embellished jewelry, clothes, weapons, grave stones, manuscripts and the prows of ships.
A work written by hand, distinguished from one printed by a press. Before c.1450 when Gutenberg invented a press with movable type, almost all books were manuscripts.
An ancient cup shaped like a drinking horn & typically made in the form of an animal's head, woman or mythic creature. This cup type is found in both Greek & Barbarian cultures.
Decorative molding that enframe the tympanum.
the area of the transept which intersects the nave.
Cross Vault or Groin Vault
A structure formed by two tunnel valults intersecting at right angles
Second story placed above the side aisle of a church below the clerestroy.
A water spout or decoration in the form of a grotesque/fantastic animal or human caved from stone and often placed on the roof.
Began in the roman esque era, a Medieval organization of men in the same trade who provide training, set standards and protect members.
Side areas of an arch, window or door. jambs are often dedorated.
A journey to a holy place, undertaken as a religious act.
Projecting molding on ceiling or valut. When ribs are the main supporting members of the ceiling, they are decorative, increase the stability of the ceiling & reduce ceiliing mass.
A geometric, repetitive form that enlarges several times at an oblique angle. Splayed doorways are common in romanesque & gothic eras.
Space between an arch & the horizontal head of the door or window below
Wedge-shaped blocks, which hold each other firmly in place to create a true arch. They prevent each other from slipping because they are smaller at the bottom than at the top. The central voussoir, which sets the arch, is called the keystone
A painted or carved religious panel or winged structure place above and behind an altar.
The stone projection or block at the intersection of the vaulting ribs or groins
A projecting support built against an external wall. Usually the buttress counteracts the lateral thrust of a vault or arch
East and of church (including the side aisles, choir, ambulatory, chapels and chancel.)
The space reserved for the clergy in the church, usually east of the transept. In a cruciform church, this space is between the apse and the crossing.
or Compound Pier or Column: A vertical support with multiple shafts or colonettes
Stylized leaf ornament projecting at regular intervals from gable, pinnacle etc.
A relatively small, decorative element terminating a gable, pinnacle etc.
An arched, second story bridge above the side aisle roofs that extends from the upper nave walls down to a soild pier.
A triangular, decorative structure above the doors of a Gothic chruch or a picture frame.
A small tower on buttress or supporting pier. Help the buttress do its' job
A chapel that projects from the ambulatory of a Romanesque or Gothic church
Surface between two arches in an arcade or the triangle area between the outer curve of an arch and the rectangle frame enclosing the arch
A decorative motif with four lobes, often found in Gothic tracery.
A large round window with stain glass and stone tracery. Rose windows are often found on the facade 7 transept ends of Gothic churches.
refers to the ornamental stonework or openwork carved in geometrical patterns found in architecture, particularly around
Decorative motif with three lobes, often found in Gothic tracery.
Band of arcades on the interior wall just below the clerestory windows. it masks the juncture of the aisle roofs and nave in a Gothic windows
Central supporting post between two sides of a double door.
The surfaces of a Gothic rib vault.
Military expeditions, which Christian undertook to recover the holy land from the Muslims.