Biology Final

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The study of the function of the body and body parts is called

physiology

The following is the correct sequence, going from simplest to most complex in the levels of structural organization of the human body:

Chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level

The system that takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide to the exterior is the

respiratory system

The system that controls and coordinates the body through hormones is the

endocrine system

The following system is matched most accurately to the lift function it provides

Nervous system - responsiveness

The following is the correct order of elements in a control system

Stimulus, receptor, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effector, response

Your body thermostat is located in a part of the brain called hypothalamus. The following element of the control system represents this hypothalamus

Control Center

In anatomical position

The body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward

The following orientation and directional terms have the same meaning (in humans

Anterior and ventral

The following orientation terms have the opposite meaning

Distal and proximal

Sarah fell while ice skating and hit her occipital region. What is this region?

Back of head

In describing the relationship between the patellar and popliteal regions

the patellar region is anterior to the popliteal region

Which type of section/plane could be used to separate the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity?

Transverse

Inferior

Below

Deep

Away from the body surface

Distal

Farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of the limb to the body trunk

Medial

Toward the body surface

Superior

Toward the body surface

Ventral

In front of

A charged atom with 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and 10 electrons is a

cation

Ninety-six percent of the human body is composed of the elements

carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen

An atom with an atomic number of 14 with have __ electrons in its valence shell

4

The following statement is correct regarding the electrical charge of subatomic particles

Protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged, and neutrons are neutral.

Isotopes have different numbers of ___; thus they also have different _______.

Neutrons; atomic masses

The following solutions is the weakest acid

a solution with a pH of 6.4

The following substance is matched with its correct organic group

enzymes - proteins

An atom has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, & 6 electrons. Its atomic mass is...

14

The atomic number of an atom reveals the number of:

Protons in the atomic nucleus

The subatomic particles that are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms re the

Electrons

This is an example is a compound:

CH4

When a pair of elections is shared equally between two atoms, the bond formed is called a

nonpolar covalent bond

The reaction A+B --> is an example of a

synthesis reaction

Glucose and starch are examples of

carbohydrates

The organic compounds that function in building tissues and acting as enzymes are the

proteins

Shell 1 of an atom can hold a maximum of _ electrons

2

Building block is the monosaccharide

carbohydrates

DNA, RNA, and ATP are types of these organic compounds

Nuclei acids

Triglycerides, steroids, and fat-soluble vitamins are types of these organic compounds

Lipids

Antibodies, some hormones, and enzymes are types of these organic compounds

Proteins

Glycogen, glucose, and lactose are compounds

Carbohydrates

Nucleotides form a the building blocks of these organic compounds

Nucleic acids

The bodys ability to maintain stable internal conditions is referred to as

homeostasis

Blood clotting and the birth of a baby are examples of the _____ feedback mechanism

Positive

The Cranial and spinal cavities are divisions of the ______ cavity

Dorsal

The following statements about RNA are true

RNA is single stranded

Microvilli are apt to be found in cells that are specialized for

absorption

The following RNA bases are complementary (match)

adenine & uracil

Ribosomes are found

in the cytoplasm and on the rough endoplasmic reticulum

The following is NOT an active transport process

facilitated diffusion

The movement of fluid through the cell membrane from a high pressure are to a lower pressure area is called

filtration

two types of passive transport are

diffusion and filtration

two types of endocytosis are

phagocytosis and pinocytosis

If the sequence of nitrogenous bases in one strand of DCA is GTA-GCA the sequence of bases on its complementary DNA strand would be

CAT-CGT

A cell would plump with water and possibly lyse (burst) in which solution

hypotonic

The phase of cell division during which the chomatids are pulled apart, appear in a V shape and move to the opposite ends of the cell is

Anaphase

The following statement about DNR is incorrect

It has the base uracil instead of thymine

The correct order of phases of the cell cycle is

interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

DNA replication takes place during

interphase

Which cell structure forms an internal framework inside the cell and is made of microtubules, intermediate filaments, & microfilaments

cytoskeleton

Protein synthesis cannot proceed without ribosomes

True

Translation is the stage in protein synthesis that occurs in the nucleus and involves the mRNA obtaining a coded message from a template strand of DNA

False

The process of facilitated diffusion requires energy from the cell

False

Osmosis is a special name for the diffusion of water

True

Telophase is the stage of mitosis when the chromosomes unwind and become chromatin again and the nuclear membrane reforms

True

Desmosomes are junctions that allow cell communication

False

Organelles are duplicated in Interphase

True

The following do no involve the movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lower concentration

filtration

A solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell is

hypotonic

A cell whose job is to detoxify harmful or poisonous substances such as alcohol would have many

peroxisomes

What are the correct base-pairing rules for DNA

adenine bonds to thymine and guanine bonds to cytosine

A cell ingests bacteria. What type of transport is likely responsible for this process

Endocytosis

Looking into a microscope, you notice cells swimming, propelled by a long tail. What cell structure must these cells have in order to be mobile

flagella

The events of prophase seem to be opposite of those that occur during

telophase

Perform transcription ton this partial sequence of DNA into mRNA: TTA-GCT-ACT

AAU-CGA-UGA

mRNA

Copies the instructions for building a protein from DCA and takes teh instructions to a ribosome

rRNA

Helps from the ribosomes where proteins are built

tRNA

Helps form the ribosomes where proteins are built

DNA

Found in the nucleus. Acts as a template for mRNA during transcription

Protein

Synthesized (made) during translation

Centriole

rod shaped and found in pairs. directs formation of mitotic spindle

mitochondria

captures energy to produce ATP

Ribosome

Site of protein synthesis

Lysosome

Digests worn out or nonusable cell structures. Sometimes called the cell's digestive system or suicide sac.

Microtubule

Determines overall cell shape

Golgi Apparatus

Packages substances, especially proteins, for release from cell.

Nucleolus

Site of ribosome synthesis

Peroxisomes

Uses oxygen to detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol and formaldehyde. Breaks down free radicals.

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