That unique and relatively enduring set of behaviors feelings thoughts and motives that characterize an individual.
What is a trait?
A disposition to behave consistently in a particular way.
What is the heritability of personality traits?
In twin studies an individual's genetic makeup goes about half way towards accounting for his or her basic traits.
What is Sigmund Freud's view of unconsciousness?
One of Freuds three levels of consciousness it contains all the drives urges and instincts that are outside awareness that nonetheless motivate most of our speech thoughts feelings or actions.
Describe id ego and superego.
ID Freud's term for the seat of impulse and the desire the pleasure seeking part of our personality-overly impulsive person
Ego Freud's term for the sense of self the part of the mind that operates on the real principle.
healthy person Super ego Freuds term for the part of the mind that monitors behavior and evaluates it in terms of right and wrong the consequence-overly controlled person.
What are defense mechanisms? Describe the most significant defense mechanisms.
Defense mechanisms are unconscious strategies the mind uses to protect itself from anxiety by denying and distorting reality in some way.Repression is the most significant defense mechanism repression a defense mechanism for keeping unpleasant thoughts feelings are impulses out of the consciences.
Explain the stages of Freud's theory of psychosexual development. Psychosexual stage theory
(Oral)-the mouth and sucking and biting chewing may result in smoking and sarcasm (Anal) (Phallic) 3 to 6 years the genitals self focused and attraction for opposite sex parent (Oedipal) complex-penis envoy (Latency)-6 to puberty (Genital)-puberty and up.
Describe Jung's theories of collective unconsciousness and personal unconsciousness.
Collective unconsciousness According to Jung the shared experiences of our ancestors that have been passed down from generation to generation. Personal unconsciousness According to Jung. All our repressed and hidden thoughts feelings and motives.
Describe humanistic-positive psychology.
Optimistic about human nature believing that humans are naturally interested in realizing their full potential. We can help ourselves. Unconditional positive regard you can change a positive look at yourself instead of your sick sick sick Carl rodgers and Maslow theories.
What are the most prominent characteristics of Abraham Maslow's self-actualized person?
(Spontaneity simplicity naturalness)- not pretending to be something you're not (Problem center)-having a calling. (Creativity)- able to readily solve problems with originality (Deep interpersonal relations)-few but profound relationships. (resistance to enculturation) -less likely to be influenced by the ideas and attitudes of others
Explain Carl Roger's concept of unconditional positive regard.
Acceptance of another person regardless of his or her behavior.- not judgmental accepting. real self ideal self.
Explain the central theme of social-cognitive theories of personality.
People respond to different situations differently producing unique personality situation profiles.
What is the basis of trait theories of personality?.
That most individuals could typically be described with only about 10 are so central traits.
Describe the five-factor model of personality.
Personality researchers amassed evidence for the existence of five Universal and widely agreed-upon dimensions of personality this perspective is known as the big five or five factor model. The five and dimensions are openness to experience Conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness Neuroticism.
What is the basis for the biological theories of personality?
Assumes that differences in personality are partly based in differences in structures and systems in the central nervous system such as genetics hormones and neurotransmitters.
Describe the four methods of measuring personality.
Behavior observation gathering personality information Interviewing sitting down with the person face-to-face Projective test -personality assessment in which the participant is presented with a vague stimulus or situation and asked to interpret it or tell a story about what they see. Personality questionnaires
What are projective tests? Give examples of the most commonly used projective tests.
inkblots projective test personality assessment in which the participant is presented with a vague stimulus our situation and asked to interpret it and tell a story about what they see.
Describe the MMPI.
Hey personality questionnaire is used by psychotherapists to access the degree and kind of person psychiatrist personality traits such as depression paranoia and psychopathic deviants.