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Mr. West History Islam Test

Arabs

Semitic-speaking people form Southwest Asia

Bedouin Arabs

Arabia is inhabited by them during the Roman Empre. nomads from north, lived in tribes

Allah

Muslim god

Muhammad

Prophet of Islam

Khadija

the caravan manager married her, she also became his boss

Gabriel

angel who told Muhammad about the Qur'an(his revelation)

Muslims

practitioners of Islam

Ulama

Muslim scholars who wrote the Shari's(laws)

Abu Bakr

First Caliph

Ali

son-in-law of muhammad, 5th caliph

Umar

third caliph

Uthman

4th caliph (assassinated)

Mu'awiya

governor of Syria, 6th caliph, Ali's main enemy, makes the Umayyads

Umayyads

Mu'awiya's bloodline, the official line of leaders

Hussein

Ali's son who led an unsuccessful revolt in Iraq in 680 because of unfair treatment toward non-Arab muslims

Shi'ite

followers of Ali, people who thought Ali should have been the first successor

Sunni

people who believe the order of the caliphs was correct

Abbassids

replaced the Umayyad's

Seljuk Turks

take over after the Abbassids, declare new emperor, Sultan. Take over capital at Baghdad. Butt heads with the Byzantine empire

Persians

outsiders

Crusaders

Christian warriors sent to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims that controlled

Mongols

Muslims from Mongolia

Ottoman Turks

take over constantinople after the Mongols

Dervish

poor persians

Arabia/Arabian Penninsula

in middle east

Saudi Arabia

an absolute monarchy occupying most of the Arabian Peninsula in southwest Asia

Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

Where Islam was "founded" Muhammad's home town, where he fled from.

Medina (Saudi Arabia)

city of prophet, Muhammad fled here when he was an outsider in Mecca, spent the rest of life here.

Byzantine Empire

Umayyad's cannot capture

Constantinople (Byzantium)

Umayyad's cannot capture

Damascus (Syria)

Umayyads moved capitol to here

Baghdad (Iraq)

Abbasids built new capitol here, center of trade

Jerusalem (Israel)

where the Dome of the Rock is located

Cairo (Egypt)

center of trade

The Dome of the Rock

In Jerusalem, built on spot where Muhammad was accented into heaven with Gabriel

Sheikh

ruler of Bedouin Arabs tribe

Majlis

council of elders, elected the ruler of the Bedouin Arbs tribe

Polytheistic

belief in multiple gods

Qur'an

Holy scripture of Islam

Hegira

the name of Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina

Umma

first Muslim community

Ka'aba

the "cube", main center of prayer for Muslims

Monotheistic

Belief in one god

Sura

Chapters in Qur'an (114)

5 Pillars of Islam

1. Belief in Allah and Muhammad as his prophet
2. Standard prayer 5 times a day, and public prayer on Friday at midday
3. Observation of the holy month of Ramadan (fasting)
4. Go to Mecca at least once in your lifetime
5. Giving alms (Zakat) to the poor

Ramadan

the holy month, fasting

Zakat

Alms given to the poor

Shari'a

laws (no gambling,pork,alcohol,dishonest behavior, men and women didnt engage in sexual activity unless married, polygamy was allowed(4 wives))

Polygamy

more than one wife

Caliph

successor

Jihad

holy war (against their enemies)

Ridda

Bedouin revolt after Muhammad's death

Imam

religious leader of the Arabs

Sultan

real authority

Crusades

Byzantine empire turns to west for help

Women's Rights

Limited rights, had to be covered head to toe

Sufism

embrace Allah directly, abandons formal Islam

Islam

The monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Qur'an

Muhammad

The Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)

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