Psychology Chapter 4

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rod

a visual receptor most sensitive to the violet-purple wave lenghts - very sensitive for night vision, sees only black and white.

lens

the part of the eye that focuses an object on the back of the eye.

retina

the back of the eye, which contains millions of receptors for light.

pitch

how high or low a sound is.

auditory nerve

bundle of nerves carrying sound to the brain.

eardrum

a piece of skin stretched over the entrance to the ear, vibrates to sound.

cilia

tiny hairs that receive odor molecules; some act as receptors in the nose.

taste receptors

chemical receptors on the tongue that decode molecules of food or drink to identify them.

visual texture

depth perception based on how rough or smooth objects appear.

depth perception

the ability to see objects in space.

closure

the process of filling in the missing details of what is viewed.

proximity

a perceptual cue in which we group together things that are near one another.

reversible figure

an illusion in which the same object is seen as two alternate figures - first one, the the other.

perception

the process of assembling and organizing sensory information to make it meaningful.

cone

a visual receptor that responds during daylight; receives color.

olfaction

the sense of smell.

audition

the sense of hearing.

decibels

a measure of how loud a sound is.

similarity

a perceptual cue in which we group like things together.

Müller-Lyer illusion

two pictures in which one line seems longer than the other but really is not.

visual cliff

a large table with Plexiglas, used to demonstrate depth perception in small children.

pheromones

odor chemicals that communicate a message.

timbre

the complexity of a sound.

cutaneous receptors

the nerve receptors in the skin that respond to pressure, temperature or pain.

hair cells

receptor cells for hearing and sense of smell; found in the cochlea and the nasal cavity.

illusion

an inaccurate perception.

size constancy

the ability to retain the size of an object regardless of where it is located.

sensation

the process of receiving information from the environment.

pupil

the opening in the eye.

afterimage

the firing of the cones not used after viewing something steadily in order to bring the visual system back in balance.

intensity

how loud a sound is.

cochlea

a snail-shaped part of the ear; filled with fluid and small haied that vibrate to incoming sound.

binocular disparity

the difference between the image provides by each eye.

cornea

the clear outer covering of the eye behind which is fluid.

blind spot

the portion of the retina through which the optic nerve exits and where there are no receptors for light waves.

iris

a colored circular muscle that opens and closes, forming larger and smaller circles to control the amount of light getting into the eye.

color blindness

inability to perceive certain colors, such as red and green.

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