Chapter 7-Rocks and Minerals & Logical Fallicies

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The volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands are

shield volcanoes.

The most common carbonate rock is

limestone.

The largest volcano on Earth is a

shield volcano

Young Earth developed a layered structure under the influence of

gravity and density segregation—the process of differentiation.

Plutons form from magma

below Earth's surface.

The two most common igneous rocks are basalt and granite. Basalt is commonly found _____, and granite is found _____.

on both the ocean floor and continental land; only on the continents.

Some _____ rock is formed from minerals that were once dissolved in water.

sedimentary

Shield volcanoes usually have explosive eruptions.

false

Erosion and weathering are basically the same process.

false

Metamorphism caused by the close proximity of a magma source is called

contact metamorphism

The three sources that brought young Earth to its melting point were

impact heating, gravitational contraction heating, radioactive decay heating.

Most rock-forming minerals are members of the group called

silicates.

The majority of continental surface rocks are

sedimentary.

Limestone may be metamorphosed into

marble.

Fluids in a metamorphic reaction

speed up the process.

The formation of metamorphic rocks involves melting.

false

The two most abundant elements in Earth's crust are

silicon and oxygen

The Hawaiian Islands are predominantly made up of

`volcanic igneous rock.

When magma solidifies before reaching Earth's surface it is called

intrusive igneous rock,plutonic rock,a pluton.

In a sedimentary rock, poorly sorted, angular grains indicate that

the sediment traveled a short distance.

Flat or elongated mineral grains in parallel layers in a metamorphic rock is called

foliation.

Well rounded sediment particles indicate

long transport distances

The layered appearance of foliated metamorphic rocks is due to the

realignment of sheet-structured minerals so that they are perpendicular to compressive forces.

Volcanic rocks form from

solidification of lava.

Igneous rock is formed from

crystallization of molten magma.

Rocks are grouped into three classes depending on how the rock was

formed

Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed from

the precipitation of minerals from a water solution.

Rocks altered by heat and pressure beneath Earth's surface are

metamorphic rocks.

When rock is broken down into smaller and smaller pieces, we say the rock has undergone

mechanical weathering.

Layered sedimentary rocks and foliated metamorphic rocks share similarities because

most foliated metamorphic rocks are derived from layered sedimentary rocks.

The most violent volcanic explosions are generally associated with

composite volcanoes.

Compaction and cementation of sediments leads to

lithification

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