Of the following statements about photosynthesis, which one is true?
water and carbon dioxide are converted to sugar and oxygen gas
It might seem a bit unusual that the richest concentration of marine life is (1) in the very margins of the oceans, where conditions are the least stable; and (2) in colder water, which seems less conducive to a good life. What factor(s) provide an explanation of these observations?
Cold water holds more dissolved carbon dioxide than warm water and nutrient availability is greater in the margins of the ocean
Chlorophyll is ______ in color; a group of marine organisms that contains chlorophyll are called _____________.
Dinoflagellates are important examples of _____________ that are often associated with ________________.
phytoplankton; red tides
Late one night as you are flipping channels on TV, you come across the Alfred Hitchcock thriller The Birds. You know that this movie showing unusual bird behavior was inspired by an actual event involving birds that pecked people because the birds were affected by ________________.
Photosynthesis in tropical waters is limited by which of the following factors?
availability of nutrients
In middle-latitude waters during the winter, the supply of sunlight is ___________, and the supply of nutrients is _____________.
In middle-latitude waters, productivity of marine algae ___________ during the spring because _______________________.
increases; the amount of sunlight is increasing
In middle-latitude waters, nutrients __________ during the spring because _____________________.
decrease; they are getting used by phtoyplankton
The productivity values of algae beds and coral reefs average about the same as those of tropical rainforests on land.
When a population of organisms at a low trophic (feeding) level becomes depleted, organisms that are at the top of a food chain are more vulnerable to ecological collapse than those that are at the top of a food web.
Why do the majority of the ocean's organisms live within the ocean's surface waters?
phytoplankton need to be in the sunlit zone and they are the base of the entire food web
Except for Trophic Level 1, on average about _____% of the mass that is taken in at one trophic level is passed on to the next.
In marine food webs, individual members of a feeding population are generally _________ in size and ______ numerous than their prey.
Which ecosystem produces the largest percentage of the world's marine fishery?
A fishery's maximum sustainable yield (MSY) is defined as _____________.
the maximum fishery biomass that can be removed yearly and still be sustained by the fishery ecosystem
Of the following nutrients, which is/are used in photosynthetic primary productivity by phytoplankton?
Of the following types of organisms, which are examples of microscopic algae?
Of the following statements about feeding strategies, which is/are true?
-Deposit feeders include worms that ingest sediment that is coated with organic matter.
-Suspension feeding involves filtering plankton from seawater.
-Suspension feeding is the same thing as filter feeding.
-Carnivorous feeding involves either passive or active predation.
-Carnivorous feeding involves organisms directly capturing and eating other animals.
Of the following statements about oceanic productivity in polar regions, which is/are true?
-In polar oceans, productivity is limited by the lack of sunlight in the winter.
-In polar oceans, there is incredibly high productivity in the summertime.
-In polar oceans, nutrient concentrations are usually adequate and do NOT limit productivity.
Of the following locations, where would you expect to find the HIGHEST annual oceanic productivity?
in middle-latitude waters along a continental margin
Of the following types of organisms, which one is considered to be LOWEST in a marine food web?
Which of the following are examples of consumers that exist in marine ecosystems?
Of the following statements about marine fisheries, which is/are true?
-Fishing practices have removed 90% of large marine predatory fish species.
-In U.S. waters, 80% of commercial marine fish stocks are fully exploited or overfished.
-A recent study indicates that if fishing practices continue, marine fish stocks will be depleted by 2048.
Of the following statements, which one best describes copepods?
copepods are microscopic shrimplike animals that are a vital link in many marine food webs
To which of the following groups does the "Portuguese man-of-war" (Physalia) belong?
Of the following fins, which one is most commonly used in propelling fish rapidly forward?
Fish that exhibit a "cruiser" lifestyle _____________.
have muscle fiber with a high concentration of myoglobin
As a group, deep-water nekton are known to exhibit all of the following adaptations EXCEPT _____________.
bright, colorful patterns
Of the following, which one is believed to be the MOST important function of schooling?
it offers protection from predators
Diatoms, radiolarians, and foraminifers are all examples of marine algae that photosynthesize.
Which of the following statements about symbiosis is FALSE?
Cannibalism is a type of symbiosis in which one party gets eaten
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic exhibited by marine mammals?
Marine mammals have gills
What is one of the best ways to tell the difference between a seal and a sea lion?
only sea lions have large front flippers and an ear flap
What is one of the ways to tell the difference between a dolphin and a porpoise?
only dolphins have a falcate-shaped dorsal fin
Unlike humans, whales can minimize the debilitating effects of deep diving because they _____________.
have collapsible lungs
Which of the following groups of organisms are NOT considered to be cetaceans (members of the order Cetacea)?
Of the following groups, which one is highly skilled in the ability to use echolocation for navigation and communication?
Which of the following structures is used by dolphins and porpoises to focus echolocation sounds?
Gray whales undertake the longest known migration of any mammal. Migration of these whales away from their feeding grounds may be an adaptation that was developed _____________.
during times of lower sea level
Of the following statements about the migration of gray whales, which one is true?
gray whales leave their feeding areas in September
Of the following adaptations, which is/are used by various pelagic organisms to keep them from sinking?
-soft, gelatinous bodies with little if any hard tissue
-swim bladders that use gas to regulate buoyancy
-fatty organs that effectively increase buoyancy
-intricate ornamental body projections
Of the following groups of organisms, which is/are considered zooplankton?
Of the following statements about the muscle tissue of cruisers and lungers, which is/are true?
-Red muscle tissue supports high metabolic rates and is good for endurance.
-White muscle tissue is designed for quick bursts of speed.
-Cruisers have a mix of red and white muscle tissue.
-Lungers have mostly white muscle tissue.
Of the following statements about schooling, which is/are true?
-Schooling reduces the percentage of ocean volume in which a cruising predator might find one of their kind.
-Schools can move and appear as one large and dangerous fish, thus preventing a predator from attacking.
-More than half of all fish species are known to join schools during at least a portion of their lives.
Of the following statements about bioluminescence in deep-water nekton, which is/are true?
-Deep-water nekton can use bioluminescent light to communicate with or attract a mate.
-Deep-water nekton can use bioluminescent light to attract and lure prey.
-Deep-water nekton can use a flash of bioluminescent light to temporarily blind a predator and escape.
-The majority of deep-water nekton can bioluminesce.
-Deep-water nekton can use bioluminescent light to stake out territory by constantly patrolling an area.
Of the following statements about the characteristics of marine mammals, which is/are true?
-Marine mammals evolved from land species.
-Marine mammals have hair (or fur) during at least some stage of their development.
-Marine mammals bear live young.
-Marine mammals must surface to breathe air.
-Marine mammals are warm-blooded.
Of the following characteristics, which is/are true of marine mammals of order Sirenia?
-Sirenians include manatees, which have nails on their front flippers.
-They are the only vegetarian marine mammals.
-They have a paddle-like tail and rounded front flippers.
-They have sparse hairs that are concentrated around the mouth but cover their bodies.
-They live in shallow water and move slowly, which can often endanger them to being run over by boats.
Of the following statements about marine mammals in suborder Odontoceti, which is/are true?
-Odontoceti lack vocal cords.
-Odontoceti form long-lived social groups.
-Odontoceti have prominent teeth and good vision.
-Odontoceti have large brains relative to their body size.
-Odontoceti have the ability to use echolocation
Of the following whales, which one(s) are baleen whales?
Of the following statements about gray whales, which is/are true?
-Gray whales undertake the longest migration of any mammal.
-Gray whales used to be known as "devilfish" for their aggressive behavior toward whalers.
-Gray whales spend most of their time in coastal waters.
-Gray whales typically feed on bottom-dwelling organisms, such as crustaceans and clams.
-Gray whales are one of only a few species ever to be removed from endangered status.
Which of the following statements about benthic life is FALSE?
benthic life includes organizms that live suspended within the water column
Life on rocky shores of the supratidal (spray) zone is influenced primarily by _____________.
the ability of an organism to avoid drying out
Based on how a sea anemone feeds, what should you avoid doing to a sea anemone so that it won't hurt you?
put your tongue into one
All of the following are adaptations that organisms in rocky intertidal zones use to avoid predators EXCEPT _____________.
release of large numbers of eggs/sperm into the water during reproduction cylces
Which of the following statements about meiofauna is FALSE?
meiofauna are found only in the supratidal (spray) zone
Generally, kelp that forms kelp forests is attached to _____________.
the rocky bottom in the subtidal zone
All of the following statements about kelp forests are true, EXCEPT:
kelp is the main source of food for most whales
There is less species diversity in sediment-covered shores than in rocky shores, but the number of individuals may be similar.
Hypersaline, hydrocarbon, and subduction-zone seep biocommunities all derive their energy from microbial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide or methane.
The environmental factor that is most consistently associated with coral bleaching episodes involves _____________.
high sea surface temperatures
The pressure in deep-ocean trenches is typically ________ times that at the ocean's surface.
On the deep-ocean floor, studies suggest that organisms the size of humans would have their soft tissue devoured in about _____________.
During which year were deep-sea hydrothermal vent biocommunities first discovered on the ocean floor?
Adaptations of deep-sea hydrothermal vent biocommunities (such as high metabolic rates and rapid reproduction) exist because _____________.
active hydrothermal vents are short lived phenomena
What is the primary food source for organisms in deep-sea hydrothermal vent biocommunities?
bacteria-like microbes that chemonosynthesize
Hydrothermal vent biocommunities have as much as _______________ biomass as compared to the normal deep-ocean floor.
1000 times more
Of the following statements about benthic organisms, which is/are true?
-Great abundances of benthic organisms are found beneath surface waters with high primary productivity.
-The vast majority of benthic species live on the continental shelf.
-Many benthic organisms spend the first part of their lives in the pelagic environment.
Of the following adaptations, which apply to life in intertidal environments?
-Many intertidal organisms have adaptations to cope with strong wave activity.
-A thick exterior or exoskeleton helps prevent creatures from drying out.
-A thick exterior or exoskeleton helps protect creatures from being crushed.
-Some organisms can survive for long periods of time out of water.
Of the following organisms, which is/are common in the middle tide zone along rocky shores?
-carnivorous sea stars
Of the following statements about organisms in rocky intertidal zones, which is/are true?
-The low tide zone holds the greatest number of soft-bodied organisms and marine algae.
-Mussel beds are a common feature of the middle tide zone.
-The spray zone is where organisms with shells are mostly found.
Of the following statements about benthic communities along sediment-covered shores, which is/are true?
-Coarse sandy beaches usually have the same tidal zonations as rocky shores.
-In some instances, large numbers of organisms can be found buried in sandy shores.
-Beaches composed of finer sediment have more gentle slopes and show less distinct intertidal zonation as compared to coarser beaches.
Of the following statements about kelp and kelp forests, which is/are true?
-Kelp in kelp forests is held to the bottom by a strong anchor called a holdfast.
-The giant brown bladder kelp Macrocystis can grow up to 0.6 meter (2 feet) a day, making it the fastest-growing alga in the world.
Of the following statements about corals, which is/are true?
-Most corals go through a planktonic stage of life.
-Certain cold-water coral species have been recently discovered living below sunlit surface waters.
-Most individual coral species are about the size of an ant.
-Corals catch small food particles with stinging cells similar to those that jellyfish have.
Of the following statements about coral reefs, which is/are true?
-The biomass of coral reefs is composed mostly of algae.
-Reef corals need warm, tropical waters.
-Most coral reefs exist in nutrient-poor waters, so corals have symbiotic algae in their tissues that provide them with food.
Of the following statements about the characteristics of the deep-ocean floor, which is/are true?
-Species diversity in the deep ocean can rival that of tropical rain forests.
-Even in tropical latitudes, water temperatures in the deep ocean are near freezing.
-Deep-ocean communities exist in the bathyal, abyssal, and hadal zones.
-Only about 1% to 3% of the food produced in the euphotic zone reaches the deep-ocean floor.
Of the following environments, which support(s) chemosynthesis?
-at hydrocarbon seeps that emit methane
-along subduction zones where methane from decomposition of organic material in folded sedimentary rocks trickles from the sea floor
-in areas where high-salinity waters percolate from the sea floor
-along the mid-ocean ridge associated with black smokers
Planetary atmospheric processes include many feedback loops. What are feedback loops?
They are processes that modify an end result.
Why do scientists use proxy data to reconstruct past climates?
The further back in time we go, actual measurements become less complete and more unreliable
An examination of natural climate change factors reveals that the recently observed climate changes, such as the rate of warming in recent decades, are greater than can be explained by any natural factors.
In 2007, the IPCC published its fourth assessment report, which _______________.
confirmed what many scientists had long suspected: Human-caused climate change is already altering Earth
What honor did the IPCC and former U.S. Vice President Al Gore Jr. share in 2007?
the nobel peace prize
If there were no natural greenhouse effect, average worldwide temperature would be freezing cold.
What is the main naturally occurring gas in the atmosphere that contributes the greatest amount of greenhouse warming?
What is the greenhouse gas whose concentrations are affected by human activities that contributes the greatest amount of greenhouse warming?
The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide is currently ______ parts per million and is increasing by about 2 parts per million each year.
The greenhouse effect is caused by gases that allow sunlight to pass through but trap heat energy before it is radiated back to space.
All of the following are observed changes that the oceans are experiencing as a result of global climate change EXCEPT _______________.
reversal of Earth's magnetic field
The term Arctic amplification describes _______________.
the idea that the arctic will likely experience large and dramatic changes as a result of global warming
Which type of marine animal has experienced a habitat decrease because of the dramatic decline in the extent of Arctic sea ice?
Seawater absorbs excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and forms carbonic acid, thus raising the ocean''s pH and decreasing its acidity.
During the past 100 years, worldwide tide records indicate that there has been a rise in global sea level of between ______________.
10 and 25 centimeters (4 and 10 inches)
If human-caused emissions remain at or near their current rate of increase, atmospheric carbon dioxide is expected to be about _____ parts per million sometime between 2050 and 2100,
The ocean''s biological pump reduces the amount of carbon dioxide that enters the ocean by "pumping" it ______________.
into deep-sea waters and especially sea floor sediments
Of the following, which are components of Earth's climate system?
-hydrosphere (including the oceans)
Of the following, which are examples of climate feedback loops?
-heat uptake by the oceans
-the addition of water vapor into the atmosphere
-the presence of fine atmospheric particles called aerosols
-the shading effect from air pollution
-the role of clouds at different altitudes
Of the following, which are useful as proxy data for understanding past climate changes?q
-sea floor sediments
-annual layers of snow packed in glacial ice
Of the following natural factors, which have caused past climate changes on Earth?
-the movement of Earth's tectonic plates
-changes in solar energy
-variations in Earth's orbit
The warming of Earth's surface and atmosphere is a natural process controlled by the greenhouse effect. It is also being altered by human emissions, a phenomenon that is often referred to as ___________.
-the anthropogenic greenhouse load
-the enhanced greenhouse effect
What are the main factors that contribute to the documented global rise in sea level?
-thermal expansion of ocean water as it warms
-an increase in the amount of water in the ocean from the melting of ice on land
Of the following, which ocean changes are predicted to result from global warming?
-increased transmission distance of sound in the sea
-increase in ocean stratification and the development of a stronger thermocline
-migration of marine organisms into deeper waters and toward the poles
-lower amounts of dissolved oxygen in seawater
Global engineering (geoengineering) proposals to reduce Earth's greenhouse effect include ____________________.
-removing human-caused greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and disposing of them somewhere else.
-reducing the amount of sunlight reaching Earth.
Of the following statements about the iron hypothesis, which is/are true?
-Oceanographer John Martin proposed fertilizing the ocean with iron to increase its productivity.
-Adding iron to the ocean might cause an ecological disaster in the ocean.
-Adding iron to the ocean increased phytoplankton productivity up to 30 times.
-Adding iron to the ocean removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which helps reduce global warming.
Of the following statements about the greenhouse effect and global warming, which is/are true?
-Global warming will likely result in a rise in sea level due to melting glaciers and thermal expansion of warm ocean waters.
-Global warming will likely result in more intense tropical storms.
-Global warming will likely result in more prolonged droughts.
-Global warming will likely result in more rainfall.