Key features of language
-arbitrary (rarely sound like their meanings)
- has additive structure (words = sentences = paragraph)
- can be analyzed in various ways
- is productive (nearly endless combos of words)
- dynamic, constantly changing, evolving
smallest units of speech sounds in a given language
smallest semantically meaningful parts of language
set of rules by which language is constructed, made of syntax and semantics
tones and inflections added to language that elaborate meaning with no world alterations
word meaning or word choice
Cooing, babbling, holophrases (single term applied to various things)
using one word to describe a lot of things that require a greater vocabulary
two or three word groups
"Mommy, food" AKA "Mommy, give me food"
grammar rules extended to unique situations
Developed by Noam Chomsky, describes organization of language which differentiates superficial of word arrangement and the meaning of the words
surface vs deep structure of language
word order vs. meaning of words
Theory of linguistic relativity
Developed by Benjamin Lee Whorf, Edward Sapir, says speakers of different languages develop different cognitive systems
Degree to which an object fits the average
Typical picture that describes something
very broad and encompasses a large group of items (food)
smaller and more specific (bread)
an even smaller and more specific concept like "Rye bread"
drawing of conclusion from evidence
drawing logical conclusions from general statements
drawing general conclusion from specific observations
requires specific thinking to find one answer that works the best
like brainstorming, formulating various ways to solve a problem
rule of thumb is judged by what events come most to mind (airplanes are more dangerous than cars)
judge objects and events in terms of how closely they match their prototype (putting everything in a little box, discrimination)
systematic, mechanical approaches that guarantee an eventual answer to a problem
showed brain uses insight ( sudden understanding of problem) to solve problems
fixed frame of mind that we use when approaching problems
search for information that supports our hypothesis or wish
tendency to think we would have acted perfectly once looking back or knowing all the facts
person only sees evidence that supports a particular position
process of producing something unique
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