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Adolescence

Transition from childhood to adulthood marked by fundamental changes in physical, cognitive, interpersonal, & personality development.

Adolescence is largely a construct of society

Prior to the 20th century, when one physically matured or entered the workforce they were thought of as adults - Today, we mature at an earlier age - We delay moving kids into the workforce & now have a need for a transitional period (longer 'training/schooling' period).

Puberty

Process of gaining reproductive maturity.

Timing of Maturation

Girls start puberty about 2 years earlier than boys.
(8-10 for girls; 9-16 for boys)
7 year average range when puberty begins.
(roughly 8 to 16 years of age).
Once puberty begins - duration is ~4 years.

Primary Sex Characteristics

Reproduction Organs related enlarge and mature during puberty.

Secondary Sex Characteristics

Physiological signs of sexual maturation that do not involve reproductive organs.
(e.g. breast development, pubic hair, changes in voice).

Adolescent Growth Spurt

Sharp increase in height and weight preceding sexual maturity.

Timing of Puberty

{early vs late bloomers}
-Girls maturing earlier than other girls are <happy and <adjusted than girls who mature later.
-Boys maturing earlier than other boys have >confidence and >popularity than boys who mature later.
-Early maturing girls and Late maturing boys show signs of being to be least happy and least well adjusted.

Health

Adolescent health is generally very good with the leading cause of death being accidents.

Piaget - "Characteristics of the Formal Operational Stage" {Logic}- Cognitive Development in Adolescence.

o)The formal operational stage begins at ~12 years of age and lasts into adulthood.
o)During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emerge during this stage.
o)Piaget believed deductive logic becomes important during the {formal operational stage}. Deductive logic requires the ability to use a general principle to determine a specific outcome.
o)This type of thinking involves hypothetical situations and is often required in science and mathematics.
o)Individuals have the ability to engage in logical operations & abstract tasks and concepts.
o) This shows a greater flexibility in reasoning than ever before.

Hypothetical Deductive Reasoning

{according to Piaget}
-This thinking ability involves the ability to develop, consider, and test hypotheses. The ability to systematically test problems like a scientific inquiry. Deductive logic requires the ability to use a general principle to determine a specific outcome. This type of thinking involves hypothetical situations and is often required in science and mathematics. According to Piaget's theory, {HD Reasoning} involves starting with a general theory of all possible factors that might affect an outcome and forming a hypothesis; then deductions are made from that hypothesis to predict what might happen in an experiment.

Piaget suggests a shift in thinking occurs {and attributes too}

-neural maturation
and
-experience

Evaluating Piaget

o)Half of all adolescents and adults NEVER reach formal operational thinking.
o)Evidence suggests that formal operational thinking may not be "all" or "none".
o)We may be capable of formal ops in one domain but not another (e.g.understanding abstract concepts in psychology but not mathematics).
o)Adult thinking is different than adolescent thinking. Piaget does not really describe a stage past this one (although others do - While Piaget did not specifically apply his theory in this way, many educational programs are now built upon the belief that children should be taught at the level for which they are developmentally prepared.
o)A number of instructional strategies have been derived from Piaget's work. These strategies include providing a supportive environment, utilizing social interactions and peer teaching, and helping children see fallacies and inconsistencies in their thinking (Driscoll, 1994).

Psychologist David Elkind was the first to describe the personal fable and adolescent egocentrism.

Immature characteristics of adolescent thought.

Know & briefly describe all 6 characteristics? (possible xtra credit Q)

1.Argumentativeness
2.Indecisiveness
3.Finding fault with authority figures
4.Apparent hypocrisy
5.Self-consciousness
o) Imaginary audience (presumption that everyone is thinking about him/her)
6.Assumption of vulnerability
o) Personal fable (uniqueness, "No one understands what I am going through")

Imaginary Audience

Presumption that everyone is thinking about him/her.

Personal Fable

Conviction that one is speical, unique, and not subject to the same rules as everyone else. {aka Invincibility Fable}

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was a Viennese doctor who came to believe that the way parents dealt with children's basic sexual and aggressive desires would determine how their personalities developed and whether or not they would end up well-adjusted as adults. Freud described children as going through multiple stages of sexual development, which he labeled Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital.

Genital period (puberty through adulthood), re-emergence of sexual urges, however now these urges can be channeled into 'adult'
sexuality.

Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Stage 5: Adolescence
Age: Adolescence --12 to 18 years
Conflict: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Important Event: Peer relationships
--

Identity versus Role Confusion (Diffusion). Task in adolescene is to develop a coherent sense of self. Virtue is that of fidelity & Includes the role that person plays in society.

Identity

Coherent conception of self.
{Constructed of goals, values, and beliefs that the person is committed}
o)Failure to resolve the identity crisis, according to Erikson leads to Identity confusion & will be more difficult to resolve later in life.
o)One generally never fully resolves the identity task during adolescence & One may revisit and revise one's identity throughout adulthood, as one's life experiences impact their lives.

Gender Differences:

Erikson asserted:
o)women need to resolve the intimacy crisis (in young adulthood) before they could move forward and resolve the identity crisis. They develop identity THROUGH intimacy.
o)Men need to resolve identity BEFORE intimacy. Erikson describes men's development as the 'norm' and women's development deviates from that (ad-norm).

Identity is formed from 3 core areas:

1)occupational choice
2)set of beliefs and values
3)a sexual identity

Much of adolescence is spent in a period of 'psychological moratorium'.

This is a 'time-out' period where one searches for commitments that they can be faithful towards.

Marcia Identity Statuses:
Key terms: identity status, diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, achievement.

Refining and extending Erik Erikson's work, James Marcia came up with four Identity Statuses of psychological identity development. The main idea is that one's sense of identity is determined largely by the choices and commitments made regarding certain personal and social traits.

Two central issues:
Marcia's theory of identity achievement argues that two distinct parts form an adolescent's identity: crisis (i. e. a time when one's values and choices are being reevaluated) and commitment.

1)Presence or Absence of Crisis (has one looked at alternative beliefs and values)
2)Presence or Absence of Commitment (has one committed to a set of values and beliefs)
He defined a crisis as a time of upheaval where old values or choices are being reexamined. The end outcome of a crisis leads to a commitment made to a certain role or value.
Addressing Erikson's notion of identity crisis, Marcia posited that the adolescent stage consists neither of identity resolution nor identity confusion, but rather the degree to which one has explored and committed to an identity in a variety of life domains from vocation, religion, relational choices, gender roles, and so on.

Know and be able to briefly describe the 4 status (Diffuision, Moratorium, Foreclosure, & Achievement) - {possible extra credit Q}

1)Identity Diffusion - the status in which the adolescent does no have a sense of having choices; he or she has not yet made a commitment
2)Identity Moratorium - the status in which the adolescent is currently in a crisis, exploring various commitments and ready to make choices, but has not made a commitment to these choices yet.
3)Identity Foreclosure - the status in which the adolescent seems willing to commit to some relevant roles, values, or goals for the future.
4)Identity Achievement - the status in which adolescent has gone through a identity crisis and has made a commitment to a sense of identity that he or she has chosen

@)Addressing Erikson's notion of identity crisis, Marcia posited that the adolescent stage consists neither of identity resolution nor identity confusion, but rather the degree to which one has explored and committed to an identity in a variety of life domains from vocation, religion, relational choices, gender roles, and so on.

Gender differences

o)Some support the idea that women may go through intimacy before resolving identity.
o)Some argue that men and women need to deal with interpersonal issues (such as intimacy) before they can resolve the identity crisis.

Sexually active teens have the highest ratest of STDs than any other age group!

22% of high school students have had 4 or more sexual partners by senior year.
1 in 4 sexually active teens will contracted an STD.

Physical Development in Young Adulthood

Generally healthy
(<6% report fair to poor health)
Leading causes of death:
1)accidents
2)homicide
3)suicide

STDs

Second highest rates after teens

HIV

5th leading cause of death for young adult males in Texas

Post-Formal thought

Piaget ends his stages with formal operational thinking. Many disagree that this is the final stage. Some have proposed the idea of post formal operational thought.
o)Characterized by Flexibility, Adaptibility, and Individuality.
o)Post-Formal thinkers use experience and intuition in addition to logic.

Sinnot -- Criteria of Post Formal Thought.

1)shifting gears
2)problem definition
3)process-product shift
4)pragmatism
5)multiple solutions
6)paradox awareness
7)self-referential thought

1)shifting gears

ability to move between abstract and real world problems.

2)problem definition

ability to define a problem as being in a class or category or logical problems.

3)process-product shift

ability to see that a problem can be either solved through a process or through a product.

4)pragmatism

can choose the 'best' of multiple solutions based on different criteria (e.g. best 'fastest' solution or best 'cheapest' solution)

5)multiple solutions

most problems have more than one cause and more than one solution.

6)awareness of paradox

problems and solutions often have underlying conflicts (may resolve problem and still have dissatisfaction).

7)self-referential thought

persons' awareness that he/she must be judge of which logic to use.

Schaie Life Span Cognitive Model

{7 stages}
1)acquisition (childhood -->adolescence)
2)achieving (young adulthood)
3)responsible (middle adulthood)
4)executive (late middle adulthood)
5)re-organizational (retirement)
6)re-integrative (late adulthood)
7)legacy (end of life)

1)acquisition stage (childhood through adolescence)

Acquire basic skills & Learn just for the sake of learning.

2)achieving stage (young adulthood)

Use skills to pursue goals (e.g. start and build career).

3)responsible stage (middle adulthood)

Use skills to solve practical problems. Used to maintain things achieved in previous stage (e.g. career and family).

4)executive stage (middle adulthood)

be responsible for larger groups (e.g. companies or governments) AND use the skills to maintain these responsibilties.

5)re-organizational stage (retirement)

Learn to shift from work to things one does after retirement.

6)re-integrative stage (late adulthood)

As health declines may have to be more selective about what tasks we continue to pursue (or begin to pursue).

7)legacy (end of life)

Preserving one's "legacy" to upcoming generations. Leave instructions for wills and possessions & pass on lifes stories.

Sternberg - Tacit Knowledge

Information that is not formally taught or openly expressed but is needed to get ahead.

Emotional Intelligence

Ability to understand and regulate emotions

Social and Personality Development in Young Adulthood (Four ways of looking at Personality development)?

1)NORMATIVE-CRISIS MODEL
2)LIFE EVENTS MODELS
3)TRAIT MODELS
4)TOPOLOGICAL MODELS

Normative-stage Models

describe psycholsocial development in terms of a definite sequence of age-related changes. (e.g. Erikson, Valliant, & Levinson)

Timing-of events Models

Describe adult psychosocial development as a response to expected or unexpected occurances of important life events (e.g. Neugarten).

Trait Models

Focus on mental, emotional, temperament, and behavioral traits (attributions) (e.g. Costa & McCrae).

Topological Models

Identify broad personality types or styles (e.g. Block)

Erikson - Intimacy vs Isolation

Task is to be able to make a commitment to others or face isolation - this is the capacity to commit to an enduring relationship that is characterized by emotional sharing, mutual caring, and investment to its future. Virtue is Love.

Orlofsky - Intimacy Statuses

Similar to Marcia's Identity Statuses.
{6 Statuses}
1)Intimate
2)Pre-intimate
3)Pseudo-intimate
4)Merger
5)Stereo-typed
6)Isolate

See Evaluating Normative Stage Models

Erik Erikson suggests that middle adulthood encompasses the period of GENERATIVITY VERSUS STAGNATION, where people consider their contributions to family, community, work, and society.
1. Generativity is guiding and encouraging future generations.
2. Generativity may be leaving a lasting contribution to the world through creative or artistic output.
3. Generativity means looking beyond oneself to the continuation of one's life through others.
4. Stagnation means people focus on the triviality of their life, and feel they have made only a limited contribution to the world, that their presence has counted for little.

Normative Life Events

Expected life experiences that occur at customary times (e.g. marriage, parenthood). {timing of events}

Social Clock

Cultural norms or expectations in life when certain important events should occur.
{timing of events}

Ego Resiliency

Adaptability under potential sources of stress. {Trait Models}

Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love

{3} Aspects of Love:
1)Intimacy is the emotional aspect
2)Passion is the physical and motivational aspect
3)Commitment is the cognitive element

Know Patterns of Loving

o)Nonlove
o)Liking
o)Infatuation
o)Empty love
o)Romantic love
o)Companionate love
o)Fatuous love
o)Consummate love

How do we select partners?

Feingold - 'successive hurtles'
-We filter or screen out individuals - screening may not be a conscious process.

Screening critieria includes:

o)Propinquity (physical proximity) aka repeated exposure
o)Attractiveness (matching hypothesis)
o)Homogamy (degree of similarities)
o)Reciprocity (mutual attraction)
o)Complementarity (self completion)
o)Timing (right place/right time)

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