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ionic compounds

a compound composed of oppositely charged ions

Periodic Table

a tabular display of the chemical elements, which consists of rows and columns

Valence Shells

the outermost electron shell of an atom

Molecular Compounds

a compound made up of 2 or more non-metal elements

Groups

Vertical columns in the periodic tables

Endothermic

a chemical reaction, which absorbs heat energy from the surroundings

Physical Change

a change in the physical appearance of a substance after a chemical reaction

Chemical Equation

a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in which the reactants are present on the left side and the products on the right side.

Ion

charged particle

Period

horizontal rows in the periodic table

Ionic bonds

bonds created between a metal and non-metal due to the full transfer of electrons

Reactants

the substances that are present before the chemical reaction begins and react to form new product/products

Cation

an ion, which has a positive charge and due to its positivity it, is attracted towards the negative electrode in electrolysis

Exothermic

a chemical reaction, which releases heat energy into the surroundings

Chemical Reaction

a process in which one or more reactants react together to form one or more products by the help of heat, electricity and catalyst

Molecule

an electrically neutral group of 2 or more atoms which are held together by chemical bonds (covalent).

Valence electrons

electrons, which are present in the outermost shell of an atom and these, are the electrons, which are either transferred or shared with another atom to start a chemical reaction.

Catalyst

they help to reduce the activation energy by speeding up the chemical reaction

Covalent bonds

bonds formed between 2 non-metals due to the sharing of electrons

Products

the end substances, which are formed in a chemical reaction after the reactants, have reacted

Anion

an ion having a negative charge

Law of conservation of mass

this states that mass is neither created nor destroyed and the mass of the reactants is always equal to the mass of the products.

Precipitate

the insoluble solid which is left behind at the end of the chemical reaction

Reactivity Series

this consists of a series of metals in order of their reactivity from the top to the bottom (top being the most reactive and bottom being the least reactive)

Acid

a compound which produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water

Oxide

a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one another element.

Binary Acid

acids which are composed of 2 elements: 1 is hydrogen and the other is a non-metal e.g. HCl, HBr, HI. HF etc...........

Neutralization Reaction

a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react together to produce salt and water, which are both neutral substances (pH at 7)

Rate of Reaction

the speed of a reaction i.e. how fast or slow a reaction takes place

Enzymes

they are biological catalysts that help to speed up a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy

Base

a bitter substance which has a pH value more than 7.

pH Scale

a scale with measurements used to determine the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution

Oxyacid

it consists of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and at least one more element

pH meter

an electronic instrument which is used to measure the acidity or basicity (pH) of a substance

Indicator

:a chemical detector of protons in acid-base titrations

pH meter

an electronic instrument which is used to measure the acidity or basicity (pH) of a substance

Salt

a substance which is formed along with water when an acid and an alkali react together in a neutralization reaction.

Litmus Paper

an indicator, which is used to test whether, a solution is acidic or basic. The litmus paper turns red in acidic solutions and blue in basic solutions.

Surface Area

it is a measure of how much exposed area a solid has (measured in square units)

Concentration

the strength of a solution which is measured in mol/dm3

Synthesis

combining of elements or molecules

Decomposition

splitting of molecules into smaller molecules or elements

Single displacement

one element replacing another element in a compound

Double displacement

two compounds switching there elements

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